History of China Choice Board

By: Jennifer Hwang&Blayne Jarret

Deng Xiaoping

Deng Xiaoping was born on August 22, 1904 in Guang’an, rising through political ranks to become the communist leader who ruled China from the late 1970s until 1997. He abandoned many communist doctrines and incorporated elements of the free-enterprise system into the economy. Deng engineered reforms in virtually all aspects of China's political, economic and social life, restoring the country to domestic stability and economic growth after the excesses of the Cultural Revolution though cementing an inequality gap as well. His way of doing things were also marked by the 1989 massacre of demonstrators in Tiananmen Square. Xiaoping died on February 19.

4 Modernization

The Four Modernizations were goals first set forth by Zhou Enlai in 1963, and enacted by Deng Xiaoping, starting in 1978, to strengthen the fields of agriculture, industry, national defense, and science and technology in China. ‘During the 4 Modernization, farmers were given more control over what they decided to produce and they were allowed to sell surplus products and keep the profits. Money was made available for newer and better farming equipment and seed, and new quotas were set for higher production.‘Industry shifted from heavy industry like iron and steel to the production of more consumer goods. ‘Factory workers and managers were allowed to make more of the decisions in the running of the factories. New methods of production required new training, all of which meant investment in the human capital of China. ‘Thanks to the 4 Modernization,today China’s economy continues to be growing and strong, and many Chinese enjoy a higher standard of living than ever before.

Tiananmen Square Massacre

On June 3-4, 1989 a massive demonstration for democratic reform, begun on Tiananmen Square by Chinese students in April, 1989, was brutally repressed on June 3 and 4, 1989. It was initiated to demand the posthumous rehabilitation of former Communist Party Chairman Hu Yaobang, preceded by Deng Xiaoping (in 1966). After several weeks of demonstrations, Chinese troops entered Tiananmen Square and fired on civilians, mostly young students. Estimates of the death toll range from several hundred to thousands. It has been estimated that as many as 10,000 people were arrested during and after the protests.