Cholesterol

LDL and HDL

By : Lauren Casanave 5th Period

LDL (Low-density lipoprotein)

LDL is considered the "bad cholesterol".

It has an increase risk of creating plaque buildup. LDL is also used in measuring the risk of heart disease.

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LDL has an outer ring of lipoprotein surrounding a cholesterol center.

HDL (High-density lipoprotein)

HDL is known as the "good cholesterol".

It takes cholesterol to the liver to be dissolved in the blood.

Just like LDL, HDL is also used to measure the risk of heart disease.

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Function and Structure - LDL & HDl

LDL:

- Structure: LDL is composed of 50% cholesterol and 25% protein. Since LDL molecules are small and not very dense, they can go through oxidation and accumulate on arterial walls as plaque.


- Function: LDL carries cholesterol to different parts of the body and builds up on the arterial walls.


HDL:

- Structure: HDL is about 20% cholesterol and 50% protein. HDL molecules are larger and more buoyant; they are less likely to cause plaque buildup.


- Function: Takes cholesterol from the heart and other organs to the liver to be disposed of.

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Why are HDL and LDL monitored?

HDL and LDL help evaluate the risk of heart disease. If the HDL and LDL levels are not where they should be at, then it shows that a person may be at risk of having heart disease.

Concentrations of HDL and LDL and how they associate with risk to heart disease

High levels of HDL can reduce the risk of having heart disease. LDL is the opposite. If there's a lot of plaque buildup on the arterial walls (caused from LDL) then this can result to atheroscerlosis or other conditions.

What can you do to change the levels of LDL and HDL in your blood?

Some ways to change the levels of LDL and HDL in the blood are:

- Healthy diet with less fat and cholesterol will increase the levels of HDL and decrease the levels of LDL.

- Physical Activity can reduce the level of LDL and raise the level of HDL.

- Medications can also be used to change the levels of HDL and LDL

Other molecules tested for

- Triglycerides

- Blood sugar level

- Total cholesterol

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How does the intake of different fats affect cholesterol levels and overall health?

Eating Saturated fat and trans raises blood levels. If people need to reduced/lower their cholesterol level then they should reduce the amount of saturated fat to 5 - 6 percent of total daily calories.

Trans fat raises LDL and reduces the level of HDL, increasing the level of heart disease.