Standard 12 American History

By: Makayla Flannagan

First abolitionist societies

In 1831 William Lloyd Garrison, with the support of whites and African Americans, started publishing The Liberator, a weekly anti slavery newspaper published in Massachusetts. . In 1831 William Lloyd Garrison, with the support of whites and African Americans, started publishing The Liberator, a weekly anti slavery newspaper published in Massachusetts. He had at Douglass joined the American Anti Slavery Society in 1841 as an agent.

Isabella Baumfree was an African American abolitionist and women's right activist. She was born a slave in Swartekill, New York but she escaped with her infant daughters to freedom. Isabella changed her name to Sojourner Truth devoting her life to Methodism. Truth was one of the foremost leaders of the abolition movement.

Sarah and Angelina Grimke were the only white people of either gender that was born upper class in the South. They began to make public speeches to the audiences consisting both genders. Sarah moved to Philadelphia and became a Quaker and Angelina did the same a few years later and joined the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society.

Henry David Thoreau was born on July 12, 1817. He is one of Americans most famous writers, he is remembered for his philosophical and naturalist writing. After college through Ralph Emerson he became exposed to Transcendentalism. Thoreau came to know many of the movement's leading figures.

Charles Sumner was know for is deep commitment to the civil rights and he emerged as an antislavery leader in the late 1840's. He became active in political protests against Texas's annexation and the Mexican War. In 1851 he was elected to the U.S. senate as a free soiler. He in endorsed the Republican Party in 1855. As a chairman of the Senate foreign Relations Committee he sought to to control the U.S foreign policy.


Quakers dominated the government of Pennsylvania. In 1740 Quaker politicians had became sufficiently anxious about about declining proportion of the population and their more aggressive political enemies that closed ranks and formed formidable Whig political organization. The abolition campaign in Britain was started by the Society of Friends or the Quakers. The opposition came in 1657, their founder was George Fox.

Northwest Ordinance

The Northwest Ordinance of 1784 was drafted by Thomas Jefferson and passed by Congress in April 23, 1784. It divided the territory into a handful to self-governing districts. It stipulated that each district could send one representative to Congress but they have to have a attaining population of 20,000. The Ordinance of 1785 provided for the scientific surveying of the territory's lands. The lands was subdivided according to a rectangular grid system. Slavery was forbidden on the Northwest Territory, it made the Ohio River a natural dividing line between the free and the slave states of the country.

Underground Railroad

Harriet Tubman escaped slavery to become a leading abolitionist. She lead hundreds of enslaved people to the Underground railroad. She earned the nickname "Moses" after the prophet Moses in the Bible. She was born a slave on a plantation in Maryland. Her birth name was Araminta Ross. Harriet was acquainted with leading abolitionists of the day. Harriet Beecher Stove published more than 30 books. She moved with her family to Cincinnati in 1832. She married Calvin Ellis Stowe in 1836, he was a professor of biblical literature at Lane. The death of a son in 1839 led her away from her father's Calvinism. In 1850 her family moved to Maine, where in response to the Fugitive Slave Act of that year, and she wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin. The novel explored the cruelties of the chattel slavery in the upper and lower South.