Banksias and Beyond

Botany Bay, Jasmine Adair 8Green

Botany Bay:

Botany Bay is located in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The total area of the bay is approximately 55km squared. It is located 13km south of the Sydney central business district. The latitude and longitude of Botany Bay is 33.9930 degrees South and 151.1752 degrees East. The ecosystems of Botany Bay is home to many different organisms and species.

Biotic and Abiotic Factors:

Biotic factors include: Blue-lined octopus, Prawn, Blue Swimmer Crab, Goby, Blennie, Pipefish, Leather Jacket, Sea Hare, Dumpling Squid, Pygmy Squid, Hooded Dotterel, Red-capped Dotterel, Crested Tern, Silver Gull, Black Cormorant, Gray Mangrove, Strap Weed, and Sea Grass.


Abiotic factors include: temperature variation, availability of gases, water, minerals and light penetration, gaseous exchange, salinity control, temperature control and obtainment of light.

Organisms:

Organisms living in Botany Bay include; Hooded Dotterel, Red-capped Dotterel, Crested Tern, Black Cormorant, Silver Gull, Dumpling Squid, Pygmy Squid, Blue Swimmer Crab, Prawn, Pipefish, Algae, Seagrass, Gray Mangrove, Blue-lined octopus, Leather Jacket, Strap Weed and Sea Hare.

Dumpling Squid

Scientific name: Dumpling Squid can also be known as Euprymna tasmanica or Southern Bobtail Squid.


Habitat: It is found in sand and mud areas, often in seagrass beds. They can be found in depths up to 80m.


Diet: The Dumpling Squid emerges at night to forage for crustaceans and fish. They are classed as carnivores.


Adaptions: The light organ is used at night to cancel out their silhouette from predators on the seafloor. The organ is filled by luminescent bacteria that are trapped from the seawater by the organ. Like other species in the genus, they bury themselves in the seafloor during the day and use their second pair of arms to rake sand grains over its head and body. The entire upper surfaces of their skin contain two very special cell types. One acts like a glue, holding a coat of sand over the body- so that even if flushed out of the sand by a predator the sand will remain. The second are special acid cells that can be used to disconnect the entire sand coat at once- leaving it as a sinking decoy for a predator while the squid jets away.


Species: Tasmanica

Genus: Euprymna

Family: Sepiolidae

Order: Sepiolida

Subclass: Coleoidea

Class: Cephalopoda

Phylum: Mollusca

Sea Hare

Scientific name: Sea hare or scientific name, Aplysia californica is a large sea slug.


Habitat: Found in Queensland, New South Wales, South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia, it lives on inter tidal rocky shores and in sea grass. The depth of water where they can be found depends on whether they are adults or juveniles. Adults prefer shallow middle and lower tidal zones. Juveniles inhabit deeper waters to depths up to 18.3 m.


Diet: Sea Hares glide over rocks, feeding on algae with their radula. These animals are herbivores that change their food preferences as they grow. As larvae, they settle out on red algae in deeper water to eat, gradually moving into shallow water as they become adults. In water closer to shore they forage on eelgrass and tougher brown and green algae. They use a pair of jaws and a rasp-like radula to graze.


Adaptations: This sea hare species releases a cloud of irritating, slimy, reddish-purple ink from a gland in the mantle cavity. The colour comes from a concentrated secretion of compounds derived from their red algae diet. Some researchers believe the ink is a screen or decoy to ward off predators while others believe it is merely used to release waste by-products of the animal’s diet.


Species: Dactylomela

Genus: Aplysia

Family: Aplysiidae

Suborder: Aplysiomorpha

Order: Opisthobranchia

Class: Gastropoda

Phylum: Mollusca

Kingdom: Animalia

Food Web

The tertiary consumer are birds such as the Silver Gull in my food web. The secondary consumers are the squid and crabs such as the Pygmy Squid and the Blue Swimmer Crab. The primary consumers are the Small Fish, Prawn and Shrimps. Mangrove, Seagrass and Algae are the producers.
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Human Impacts

Botany Bay can easily be affected by humans in a negative or positive way. Some negative effects can include:


Dredging: Dredging is the term given to digging, gathering, or pulling out material to deepen waterways, create harbours, channels, locks, docks and berths, and keep approaches to boat ramps clear.


The dredging will provide for the deepening of the port to allow for access by container vessels to the new facility, to create a recreational boating channel from the new recreational boat ramp to the wider Bay and to provide materials for the reclamation of the new terminal area and the new recreational boat ramp.


Localised turbidity (suspended sediment) may be generated by both dredging and reclamation activities. To minimise the spread of turbidity and potential impacts on sensitive areas, such as the seagrass, siltation control curtains are used.


Littering and Pollution: Environmental risks, such as pollution and site contamination from current and past industrial activities around Botany Bay, are key concerns for the community, government, business and environment groups.


Pollution is a big issue, not only for rubbish but air pollution and water pollution has a negative effect on Botany Bay caused by humans.


Air Pollution: Airports are major sources of air pollution in cities, with similar emissions in large coal fired power stations. As well as aircraft landing and taking off, taxiing around the airport and waiting for take off; cars, trucks and buses driving to and from the airport significantly adds to airport created pollution.


The Noise and Air Quality Management Plan estimated that Sydney Airport would emit up to 4% of the entire Sydney basic air pollution. And that was before Macquarie Airport’s plan for expansion.

Sydney Airport’s inefficient layout leads to a doubling of air pollution for every 50% increase in aircraft numbers. The main cause is the long taxiing distance from the terminals to the third runway out in Botany Bay.

Bibliography

Home - City of Botany Bay. 2016. Available at: http://www.botanybay.nsw.gov.au/Home. (Accessed 9/09)


Orica Botany - Mercury Independent Review | NSW EPA. 2016. Available at: http://www.epa.nsw.gov.au/oricabotanycttee/index.htm. (Accessed 10/09)



The Sydney Morning Herald. 2016. Contamination concerns grow as Botany Bay booms. Available at: http://www.smh.com.au/nsw/contamination-concerns-grow-as-botany-bay-booms-20140620-zsfx9.html. (Accessed 10/09)



Aquarium Fish: Tropical Freshwater Fish and Saltwater Fish for Home Aquariums. 2016. Available at: http://www.liveaquaria.com/. (Accessed 10/09)

Discussion:

To ensure all my sources and information/research gathered was reliable, I went through a process of steps. To choose my website to gather information, I first, checked for a credible author. I then looked at the date to make sure the information was current. I checked the domain to search for government or educational domains, rather than organisations as to eliminate bias or persuasion. I cross-referenced with different websites after gathering my information and finding useful websites. After finding a reliable website, to check my information was reliable, I used alternative websites to gain more knowledge on the topic and see it was fully reliable information.