By Drew Bendon
1942 Blaise Pascal
In 1642, in an effort to ease his father's endless, exhausting calculations, and recalculations, of taxes owed and paid, Blaise Pascal, not yet nineteen, constructed a mechanical calculator capable of addition and subtraction, called Pascal's calculator or the Pascaline.
1703 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz 1 July 1646 – 14 November 1716) was a German philosopher, polymath and mathematician who wrote primarily in Latin and French.The modern binary number system was fully documented by Gottfried Leibniz in the 17th century in his article Explication de l'Arithmétique Binaire.