Reciprocal Teaching

in Intermediate Grade Levels

What is Reciprocal teaching?

Reciprocal Teaching is an instructional procedure in which small groups of students learn to improve their reading comprehension through scaffold instruction. This is a comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring strategy. Reciprocal Teaching has four strategies that are referred to as The Fab Four. This consist of Predicting, Clarifying, Questioning, and Summarizing. These four comprehension strategies offers up ongoing dialogues between a dialogue leader and students in small groups. the Leader can be the teacher or student who models the strategies by asking questions about the text, summarizing the text, clarifying misunderstandings, and asking students to predict upcoming text. Then the Dialogue leader fade their involvement, and other students in the group take turns as leaders. The overall goal is to create something new through collaboration. This is a self-regulated and flexible strategy that makes the possible for students to gain greater meaning from their reading.

The Fab Four

When can Reciprocal Teaching be used?

Reciprocal Teaching can be used during many different parts of the School day. One place that this can be used is during Literature Circles. Another place that reciprocal teaching be used is during a classrooms guided reading groups. The next place that this can be used is even during whole-class instruction. It is very amazing that this comprehension strategy can be used in so many ways through the daily classroom schedule.
Reciprocal Teaching: Introduction

Hello I am, Alisha Spivey

I am a Senior at East Carolina University with a major in Elementary Education. I am from a small town of Robbins, NC. I hope that this information is helpful and insightful!!!

References that can be helpful...

Fisher, D., and Frey, N, (2004). Improving Adolescent Literacy: Strategies at Work.New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Hacker, D. J., & Tenent, A. (2002). Implementing reciprocal teaching in the classroom: Overcoming obstacles and making modifications. Journal Of Educational Psychology, 94(4), 699-718. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.94.4.699

Oczkus, L. D. (2010). Reciprocal Teaching at Work : Powerful Strategies and Lessons for Improving Reading Comprehension (2nd Edition). Newark, DE, USA: International Reading Association. Retrieved from

Oczkus, L. (2005, January 1). Reciprocal Teaching Strategies at Work: Improving Reading Comprehension, Grades 2–6. Retrieved September 14, 2014, from

Palincsar, A. S. & Brown, A. (1984). Reciprocal Teaching of Comprehension-Fostering and Comprehension Monitoring Activities. Cognition and Instruction, 1(2),pp. 117-175.

Reciprocal Teaching. (n.d.). Retrieved September 14, 2014, from

Reciprocal teaching: A technique that really works. (2010). Reading Today, 28(1), 44. Retrieved from

Reciprocal Teaching: Strategies, Definition & Examples. (2013, January 1). Retrieved October 20, 2014, from

Rosenshine, B., & Meister, C. (1994). Reciprocal teaching: A review of the research. Review of Educational Research, 64(4), 479. Retrieved from

Sullivan Palincsar, A., & Brown, A. (1984, January 1). Reciprocal Teaching of Comprehension- Fostering and Comprehension- Monitoring Activities. Retrieved September 14, 2014, from 261 Papers/Palincsar Reciprocal Teaching.pdf

The Reading Teacher, Vol. 64, No. 8 (MAY 2011), pp. 620-625

Published by: Wiley on behalf of the International Reading Association

Article Stable URL: