MS respiratory and excretory system

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the respiratory system

• Your respiratory system is made up of the tissues and organs that allow oxygen to enter and carbon dioxide to

leave your body.

• Respiratory system organs include your nose, mouth, larynx, pharynx, lungs, and diaphragm.

• During inhalation, the diaphragm contracts and moves downward, and brings air into the lungs.

During exhalation, the diaphragm and rib muscles relax and air is pushed out of the lungs.

• Oxygen enters the lungs, then passes through the alveoli and into the blood. The oxygen is carried around the

body in blood vessels.

• Carbon dioxide, a waste gas, moves into the blood capillaries and is brought to the lungs to be released into

the air during exhalation.

• The oxygen that arrives from the lungs is used by the cells during cellular respiration to release the energy

stored in molecules of sugar.

health of the respiratory system

• Respiratory diseases are diseases that affect the lungs, bronchial tubes, trachea, nose, and throat.

• Respiratory diseases can reduce the amount of oxygen that gets into the blood.

• Asthma is an illness that occurs when the bronchioles are inflamed and become narrow.

• Difficulty breathing happens because of the inflammation, contraction of the muscles, and the production of

mucus by the cells that line the bronchioles.

• Diseases of the respiratory system that are caused by exposure to tobacco smoke include emphysema, lung

cancer and cancers of the larynx and mouth.

• Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths.

• Avoid smoking, get enough exercise, and wash your hands in order to protect your respiratory system from


the respiratory

the Excretory system

• The excretory system controls the chemical make-up of liquids found in the body.

• The organs of the excretory system remove wastes. They also maintain the proper levels of water, salts, and

nutrients in the body.

• The lungs, skin, kidneys, and large intestine are all organs in the excretory system.

• The urinary system is made up of the kidneys, the ureters, the bladder, and the urethra.

• The filtering parts of the kidneys are the nephrons.

• Water and waste molecules move out of the blood capillaries and into the nephrons. Most of the water returns

to the blood.

• Urine collects in the nephron and moves to the urinary bladder through the ureters.

• The filtering action of the kidneys is controlled by the pituitary gland.

• ADH is the hormone released by the pituitary gland and controls the how water is reabsorbed by the blood

from the kidneys.

• Disorders of the urinary system include kidney stones, kidney disease, and urinary tract infections.

MS Respiratory and Excretory system