MS respiratory and excretory system
the respiratory system
• Your respiratory system is made up of the tissues and organs that allow oxygen to enter and carbon dioxide to
leave your body.
• Respiratory system organs include your nose, mouth, larynx, pharynx, lungs, and diaphragm.
• During inhalation, the diaphragm contracts and moves downward, and brings air into the lungs.
During exhalation, the diaphragm and rib muscles relax and air is pushed out of the lungs.
• Oxygen enters the lungs, then passes through the alveoli and into the blood. The oxygen is carried around the
body in blood vessels.
• Carbon dioxide, a waste gas, moves into the blood capillaries and is brought to the lungs to be released into
the air during exhalation.
• The oxygen that arrives from the lungs is used by the cells during cellular respiration to release the energy
stored in molecules of sugar.
health of the respiratory system
• Respiratory diseases are diseases that affect the lungs, bronchial tubes, trachea, nose, and throat.
• Respiratory diseases can reduce the amount of oxygen that gets into the blood.
• Asthma is an illness that occurs when the bronchioles are inflamed and become narrow.
• Difficulty breathing happens because of the inflammation, contraction of the muscles, and the production of
mucus by the cells that line the bronchioles.
• Diseases of the respiratory system that are caused by exposure to tobacco smoke include emphysema, lung
cancer and cancers of the larynx and mouth.
• Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths.
• Avoid smoking, get enough exercise, and wash your hands in order to protect your respiratory system from
the Excretory system
• The excretory system controls the chemical make-up of liquids found in the body.
• The organs of the excretory system remove wastes. They also maintain the proper levels of water, salts, and
nutrients in the body.
• The lungs, skin, kidneys, and large intestine are all organs in the excretory system.
• The urinary system is made up of the kidneys, the ureters, the bladder, and the urethra.
• The filtering parts of the kidneys are the nephrons.
• Water and waste molecules move out of the blood capillaries and into the nephrons. Most of the water returns
to the blood.
• Urine collects in the nephron and moves to the urinary bladder through the ureters.
• The filtering action of the kidneys is controlled by the pituitary gland.
• ADH is the hormone released by the pituitary gland and controls the how water is reabsorbed by the blood
from the kidneys.
• Disorders of the urinary system include kidney stones, kidney disease, and urinary tract infections.