30 Years' War

1618-1648

Summary

The 30 Years' War started as a conflict between the Catholics and the Protestants, but as the war continued it turned into a war of power. It is considered one of the most destructive wars in European history, because of all of the bloodshed. There was no real winer of the war because the two sides signed a peace treaty known as the Peace of Westaphalia.


This primary source depicts virtually every aspect of the 30 Years' War. It allows one to gain deeper insight in the war and further their understanding. This website also shows the smaller, individual wars during that 30 years

Main Significance

*The 30 Years' War altered the geopolitical orientation of European affairs


*As a result of the war, secularism grew. Religion and churches continued to have meaning for Europeans, but the influences of Christian values and institutions declined


*the scientific and intellectual revolution was caused by the war

Key Figures

*Ferdinand II: Holy Roman Emperor


*Gustaves II Adolphus: King of Sweden in the Swedish Phase

*Count Johan Tserclaes Tilly: Commander of the Imperial Army

*Christian IV: King of Denmark who led an army into northern Germany

*Frederick V of Palatine: The Calvinist leader in the Holy Roman Empire; head of the Protestant Union

*Louis XIII: King of France during the Franco-Swedish Phase

*Duke Maximilian of Bavaria: Leader of the Catholic Union

Cause

The tension between the Protestants and the Catholics was the main cause of the war. As no satisfactory agreement could be reached between the two religious groups, their growing resentment ultimately caused the Thirty Years' War.



Course

1617: Ferdinand Hapsburg becomes king of Bohemia; revokes Letter of Majesty

1618: Defenestration (to throw out the window) of Prague; Thirty Years' War begins

1619: Ferdinand II elected Holy Roman Emperor; Bohemians crown Frederich Wittelsbach king, deposing Ferdinand

1620: Battle of White Mountain

1629: Edict of Restitution bans Protestantism throughout Holy Roman Empire

1635: France declares war Spain

1648: Peace of Westphalia; Thirty Years' War ends

The Thirty Years' War

Outcome

Neither side 'won' the war per-say; it was ended by a peace treaty known as The Treaty of Westphalia