IPS Exam Study Guide

Scientific Method

1. Identify Problem

2. Gather Information

3. Form hypothesis/theory

4. Perform Experiment

5. Analyze Data

6. Conclusion

LAB: Reaction in a Bag

Purpose: To record observations that occur when substances are combined


Chapter 1 Vocabulary

1. Observation

2. Inference

3. Hypothesis

4. Control Group

5. Indicator

6. Volume

7. Volume Displacement Technique

8. Mass

9. Meniscus

10. Experimental Group

11. Control Factors

LAB: Baking Soda

Purpose: To observe and record the reaction that occurs when baking soda it healed


Post Lab Notes:

1. Condensation Occurs From Hot Gas Touching Cooler Surface

2. Heated Baking Soda Is No Longer Baking Soda


Errors:

1. Hole In Tubing

2. Stirring Rod Contaminated

3. Stopper Not On Tight


Control Group: Unheated Baking Soda And Tea

Experimental Group: Heated Baking Soda/ Tea

Indicator: Tea (showed color)

Control Factors:

1. Stirring Some Time

2. Same Type Of Tea

3. Same Amount Of Baking Soda

4. Same Amount Of Tea

5. Same Size Test Tube

1.2 Volume Notes

Unit Of Measurement: Cubic Centimeters

Volume: LxWxH

Standard Unit Of Length: Meter

1 Centimeter (1cm): .01m

Volume Of Liquid

Use A Graduated Cylinder To Measure Volume

Units: Milliliters (ml)

Single Pan/Balance Notes

1. Check That Pan Is Clean And Dry

2. Always "zero" Balance Before Each Massing

  • Push All Riders To Zero (left)
  • Use adjustment knob if needed
3. Never Switch Pans

4. Pick Up Balance By Red Bar Only

5. Return Riders To Zero When Done

Volume Of Rock

1. Find Increment Volumes Of Cylinder

2. Fill Cylinder With A Amount Of H2O

3. Record The Volume of H2O

4. Put Rock Into H2O

5. Record Level Of H2O

6. Calculate Difference Between Two Volumes



LAB: 1.4

Purpose: To Use The Displacement Of Water Method To The Amount Of Dry Sand Is Sand And That Is Air Space


Post Lab Notes:

Errors:

1. Sand Sticks To Sides Of Cylinder (Volume Of Sand And Water Will Be Less)

2. Pours The Water Into The Sand (Volume Of Sand And Water Will Be Higher)

3. Pour The Sand Too Fast -> Overflow Funnel

4. Sand Sticks To Funnel (Wet)


Extra Question: Everyone One Had The Same Amount Of Air Space About 40%

LAB: 1.8

Purpose: To Discover The Sensitivity Of Your Balance. Also, To See If You Mass The Same Object Repeatedly Will You Find The Same Mass


To Find Sensitivity Of Balance: Change Of MAss Divided By Number Of Yes's

Errors:

1. Pan Mixed Up

2. Cutting Bad

3. Not Zero Balance

4. Pencil Marks On Graph Paper

5. Read Balance Incorrectly


Chapter 2 Vocab

1. Histogram

2. Conservation Of Mass

3. Laws Of Nature

LAB: 2.1

Purpose: To Discover If The Mass Of Salt Decreases When Salt Dissolves In H2O


Errors:

1. Clean Pan Between Mass Initial And Mass Final

2. Cap Not Tight -> H2O Spills Out

3. Salt Spills From Cap Into Bottle

4. Cap Not Dry

5. Not Shaking Long Enough

6. Remove Cap Before Mass Final

7. Bottle Wet On Outside

MOST LEAD TO A LOSS IN MASS!


Histogram Rule: If Data Falls On A Line Graph It In The Column To The Right!


LAB: 2.4

Purpose: To Determine Whether Or Not The Mass Of Ice Will Change Along With Its Volume As It Melts


Condensation: Comes From Warm H2O Vapor Touching The Cooler Surface Of Bottle It Changes From A Gas To A Liquid


Errors:

1. Not Wiping Off Condensation On Outside

2. Shaking Bottle

3. Ice Not Fully Melted

4. Not Drying Bottle And Cap (Makes Mass Initial Smaler And Change In Mass Larger)

5. Cap Not On During Mass Initial-Water Could Evaporate

6. Remove Cap By Mass Final-Water Could Spill Out

LAB: 2.5

Purpose: Does The Total Mass Of Copper And Sulfur Change When They Are Heated


Errors:

1. Rubber Sheet And Band Are Not On Tight Enough

2. Clean Pan Between (Mass Initial And Mass Final) Making A Decrease In Mass

-Reaction Not Done Before Cap Flame

3. Hole In Rubber Sheet (Gas Will Escape And You Won't See The Reaction Same For #1)

LAB: 2.6

Procedure: To Discover If The Mass Will Change When A Solid And Liquid Produce A Gas


Errors:

1. Cap Wet

2. Cap is Not On Light And Fast

3. Water On Outside Bottle During Mass Initial

4. Touch Tablet After Mass Initial


Alka-Seltzer

-Sodium Bicarbonate -> Baking Soda Releases Gas

Conservation Of Mass Notes

In A Closed System Mass Will Remain Constant, Regardless The Actions OF The PRocesses Inside The Closed System

Chapter 3 Vocab

1. Characteristic Properties

2. Plateau

3. Phase Diagram

4. Barometer

5. Barometric Pressure

6. Density

LAB: 3.1

Property Of Object: Describes The Object Itself


Property Of Subject: Identify What The Object Is Made Of

LAB: 3.2

Purpose: To Discover If The Mass Of a 1cm3 Object Will Depend On Its Shape Or The Substance It Is Made Of


Errors:

1. Re-mass Same Cylinder

2. Cylinder Is Wet When Massing (Mass Higher)

3. Not Enough H2O To Cover Cylinder (Volume Lower)

4. H2O Splashes Out Of Graduated Cylinder (Volume Lower)



LAB: 3.3 Density

Mass Dived By Volume=Density (g/cm3)

LAB: 3.5

Purpose: To Use Density To Compare Three Metal Objects To See If They Are Made Of The Same Substance


Errors:

1. Mix Up Cubes

2. Mass Rock After Taking Its Volume (Mass Higher, Density Higher)

3. Measure Same Side Of Cube/Substance

4. Measure From End Of Ruler, Not Zero (Volume Lower, Density Higher)


LAB: 3.6

Purpose: To Use Density To Compare Liquids To See If They Are The Same Substance


Errors:

1. Contaminate Cylinders (Cylinder Is Wet)

2. Dry Cylinder After Its Massed

3. Liquid Sticks To Inside Walls Or Cylinder (Mass Higher, Density Higher)

Magnesium Sulfate: Epson Salt

LAB: 3.7

Purpose: To Produce And Collect A Gas In Order To Accurately Find The Density Of The Gas


Errors:

1. Hand Isn't Sealed -> H2O Leaks Out (Gas Enters) (Volume Higher, Density Lower)

2. Touch Tablet After Mass Initial (Mass Higher, Density Higher)

3. Forget To Include Foil In Mass Final (Mass Higher, Density Higher)

4. Tubing, Tablet, Stopper (In This Order) (Volume Higher, Density Lower)

5. Condensation On Outside Test Tube For Mass Final (Mass Lower, Density Lower)

6. Hole In Tubing/Stopper Not Snuggly/Taking Too Long Getting Tubing In Bottle (Volume Lower, Density Higher)


-Gas Comes From Sodium Bicarbonate In Tablet

-Gas Is Carbon Dioxide