Middle Colonies


Delaware was founded in 1638 by Peter Minuit and New Sweden Company. The 2 main reasons for their founding of Delaware was the trade and agriculture opportunity that the state presented. The economy from Delaware was mixed economy based on different industries it had. Delaware had fertile land that was great for agriculture. Rice and Indigo were commonly grown and harvested among the colonists. The Duke of York and brother of King Charles II, outfitted an expedition that easily ousted the Dutch from both the Delaware and Hudson rivers, leaving the Duke of York proprietary. Delaware population was sparsely populated, the company was successful in purchasing tracts of land from the region's Indians. The first Europeans in Delaware were Dutch who settled in 1631 at New Zwaanendael as part of New Netherlands. The Delaware River Valley was inhabited by a group of Native Americans called the Lenni Lenape. The Lenni Lenape tribe was comprised of three groups settled between southern New York to northern Delaware. Henry Hudson, and English explorer hired the Dutch East India Company discovered what would become known as Delaware River and the Delaware bay in 1609. Samuel Argail who kidnapped Pocahontas was blown off and sailed into the Delaware Bay. He named a point of land Cape De La Warr the governor of Virginia. Quakers, Presbyterians, and other religious groups are allowed in Delaware. They all would go to church in Sundays. Nothing really bad or any conflict happen in Delaware with religion. Migration to the region that would become state of Delaware become more populated when Scotch- Irish and English settlers arrived.

New York

New York was founded in 1664. The reason for its founding was money and natural resources. New York made their money by fur trade. Eventually became an agricultural resource thanks to the Patroon. The King conveyed to the duke a proprietary stretching from the Connecticut River to the Delaware River and also New York. The population in New York was not that many people back in 1664. Mostly European immigrants moved to New York in the 1800s. Lenape was inhabited in New York. It was the same as Delaware and also the same conflict. Religion in New York was Dutch, Quakers, and Jewish. It was a gave way of religious freedom. Nothing really bad happen with religious conflict. British sailed into the harbor of New Amsterdam and seized the colony renaming at New York. Settlement during British colonial period expanded land and out into the water on several blocks of landfill.
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New Jersey

New Jersey was founded in 1664. The Duke of York assigned Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret the tract of country to the east of Delaware River and extending to the Hudson and the Atlantic. Honor of Carteret, who was governor of the island Jersey, they name the territory New Jersey. The New Jersey colonists made their money by working on carpenter, weaver, ironsmith, or farmed or hunted. They also sold goods to merchant ships. In 1664, England took control of land that is now New Jersey. John Berkeley and George Carteret were named proprietors of the colony. The proprietors had the power to appoint the governor of the colony. George appointed his cousin Philip as the first governor in 1665. As New Jersey was more ethnically diverse than many other colonies. Primarily a rural society, the colony grew to have about 100,000 people. The Dutch, Swedes, and Finns were the first European settlers in New Jersey. Lenni Lenape inhabited New Jersey long before the Europeans arrived. The European needed to own the land and the diseases, guns, and alcohol they brought with them created an impossible situation for the survival of he Lenni Lenape in their homeland. The Dutch and Swedish, and later the English, realized offering religious freedom would attract more settlers. The Protestant Reformation in Europe had fueled widespread religious persecution and many Europeans sought sanctuary in the New World. Many faiths lived in New Jersey in relative harmony, but the presence of Catholics was resented by Protestant population. The Dutch colony of New Netherlands was seized by the English in 1664. New Jersey was one of the thirteen colonies that broke off from Britain in the American Revolution.
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Pennsylvania was founded in 1682. William Penn wanted Pennsylvania to be a land where people of differing languages and customs could live together, where men and women could worship as they pleased. Pennsylvania ranked as a leading agricultural area and produced surpluses for export adding wealth. Wheat and corn were the leading crops though rye and flax were also important. In 1685 the population in Pennsylvania was about 9,000. Thousands of Germans settled in Pennsylvania. Many of them were persecuted religious groups such as Amish and Mennonites. William Penn made a treaty with Leni Lenape to purchase his grant of land from them, even though there was no law requiring him to do so. There was no issue with the white colonist. William Penn brought Quakers to Pennsylvania during the 1680s and the climate of religious liberty soon attracted other dissident groups, including German Mennonites, Dunkars, and English Baptists. Quakers were the first religious groups openly to advocate abolition of slavery and to help runaway slaves to freedom to the Underground Railroad. Philadelphia was known in colonial times as Athens of America because of its rich cultural life. Because of Penn's principles and the freedom of expression that prevailed, the province was noted for the variety and strength of its intellectual and educational institutions.
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