Unit 2 Vocabulary

Angelica Roman P2

American Industrial Revolution

A period of major industrialization that took place during the late 1700s .

Laissez Faire

The federal government had a Laissez-Faire attitude by keeping taxes and spending low and by not interfering with the regulations on industry


The belief in the reliability , truth , or strength of someone or something

Robber Baron

A businessman who uses ruthless business tactics , steals from the public , abuses the law , mistreats their workers , and bribes government officials

Vertical integration

When the company owns all of the different businesses on witch it depends for it's operation and instead of paying other businesses of their services , they on all aspects of production and delivery

Horizontal integration

When a company takes over or buys out a competitor in an effort to gain market share , when a single company achieves control of an entire market , it becomes a monopoly

Political machine

Were a informal political group designed to keep power they provided essential services for immigrants.

Ellis Island

A small island in New York harbor that's served as a processing center for most immigrants arriving on the east cost .


The majority of urban dwellers were part of the working class who lived in the city in dark mad crowded multi-family apartments

Ethnic enclaves

is a geographic area with high ethnic concentration, characteristic cultural identity, and economic activity.


A preference for native-born people and the desire to limit immigration .

Gilded age

Meaning a layer of glitter over a cheap base

Social Darwinism

A social theory that attempts to adapt Charles Darwin's natural selection principals and apply it to society.


The purpose was to assimilate ethnic Immigrant groups into the dominant culture .

Populist party

was organized in St. Louis in 1892 to represent the common folk , especially farmers against the entrenched interests of railroads, bankers, processers, corporations, and the politicians in league with such interests.

Gospel of wealth

is an article written by Andrew Carnegie in 1889 that describes the responsibility of philanthropy by the new upper class of self-made rich.

Social gospel movement

was a religious movement that arose during the second half of the nineteenth century.


    is a broad philosophy based on the Idea of Progress, which asserts that advancement in science, technology, economic development, and social organization are vital to improve the human condition.


They relied on their own investigative journalism reporting; muckrakers often worked to expose social ills and corporate and political corruption .

John D Rockefeller

He established standard oil , which controlled some 90 percent of U.S refineries mad pipelines.

Andrew Carnegie

was a Scottish American industrialist who led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century. He built a leadership role as a philanthropist for America and the British Empire.

JP Morgan

is an American multinational banking and financial services holding company headquartered in New York.

Cornelius Vanderbilt

    was an American business magnate and philanthropist who built his wealth in railroads and shipping.

Thomas Edison

was an American inventor and businessman. He developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb.

Henry ford

was an American industrialist, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, and the sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production.

Samuel Gompers

    was an English-born American cigar maker who became a Georgist labor union leader .

William "boss" tweed

was an American politician most notable for being the "boss" of Tammany Hall.

Upton Sinclair

was an American author who wrote nearly 100 books and other works across a number of genres.

Jacob Riis

    Jacob August Riis was a Danish American social reformer, "muckraking" journalist and social documentary photographer.

Theodore Roosevelt

was an American statesman, author, explorer, soldier, naturalist, and reformer and was the 26th President of the United States.

William Taft

    was an American jurist and statesman who served as both the 27th President of the United States and later the 10th Chief Justice of the United States.

Meat inspection act

Act that works to prevent adulterated or misbranded meat and meat products from being sold as food and to ensure that meat and meat products are slaughtered and processed under sanitary conditions.

Interstate commerce commission (icc)

was a regulatory agency in the United States created by the interstate commerce Act of 1887.

Children's bureau 1912

    is a federal agency organized under the United States Department of Health and Human Services' Administration for children and Families.

Sherman anti-trust act

    is a landmark federal statute in the history of United States antitrust law passed by Congress in 1890.

16th amendment

The amendment within the Constitution that gives Congress the power to collect taxes on income without apportioning it among the states .

17th amendment

Amendment XVII to the United States Constitution established the popular election of United States Senators by the people of the states.

18th amendment

This unpopular amendment banned the sale and drinking of alcohol in the United States. This amendment took effect in 1919 and was a huge failure.

19th amendment

The 19th amendment guarantees all American women the right to vote. Achieving this milestone required a lengthy and difficult struggle; victory took decades of agitation and protest.