The Four Generations Of Computers

By Jessie Stevenson

The first and second computer generations.

The first computer were made with vacuum tubes and could take up the whole room. They generated alot of heat and energy, they also were very expensive to opperate. they could only do one problem at a time.The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computers. The UNIVAC was the first computer delivered to a business client, the U.S, 1951.

Transitors replaced vacuum tubes and then came in the second generation of computers.The transistors were invented in 1947, but did not see widespread until the late 1950s.The transistor was far better compaired to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become cheaper, more energy-efficient, faster and more reliable than the first-generation.Although the transistor still generated a massive deal of heat that still caused the computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube though. Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output. High-level programming languages were also being developed at this time, these were also the first computers that stored their instructions in their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology.

Third and fourth computer generations

Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers.Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many differentapplications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory.

Thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. In the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand. The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer.

In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 apple introduced the Macintosh.

As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet. .