By: Madiha Rehan, Tessa Corley, and Emily Tepera
The Beginning of Antibiotics
The first antibiotics were made form the Greeks and Indians, but it was first improved by Sir Alexander Fleming in 1928.
1. Penicillins: penicillin, amoxicillin, cloxacillin etc.
2. Cephalosporins: cefazolin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, cefpirome etc.
3. Monobactams: a relatively small group – aztreonam
4. Carbapanems: meropenem, imipenem
Quinolones: ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin etc
Glycopeptides: vancomycin, teicoplanin
Macrolides: erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin etc
Bacteria becomes resistant from antibiotics in natural selection through random mutation, but it can also be from revolutionary stress on the population.
Some of the antibiotic resistant bacteria are ESKAPE or Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Enterobacter. These 6 bacteria are known as the hospital lurkers. These 6 are escaping antibiotics. Almost everyone's heard of MRSA, or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This is the original "super bug" which has now become antibiotic resistant. Another antibiotic bacteria is E. Coli which is passed through what you eat can cause urinary tract infections.
- Antibiotics are generally active against multiplying bacteria, but are much less effective against non-replicating (latent) bacteria.
- Antibiotics can't distinguish between the "good" and "bad" bacteria.
- Green tea boosts the bacteria-killing activity of antibiotics.
- Antibiotics may interfere with immune system development.