The Niger and Senegal river run through the Ghana Empire. There are forest in the south. The size of the Ghana empire is 308,500 sq. miles. The climate is savanna. The proximity to other civilizations was separated from many civilizations by the Sahara desert, which is close to a few cities.

Government and Military

The government is managed by kings, advisors, ministers, and district chiefs. Monarchy is their type of government. King Kaja Maja helped trade and founded Ghana. Military structure was provided with iron weapons, a huge army, 200,000 soldiers could be brought up by the king. Reserved forces, elite soldiers, kept borders secure, maintained peace and order, used spears, daggers, swords, battle clubs and bow and arrows.


Major resources of the economy are gold and salt. Trading partners include, Sijilmasa, Europe, Egypt, Taghaza, Walata and Wangara. Currency was cowrie shells and gold coins. The division of the social classes went from merchants, traders, porters, miners, and slaves.


In 1960, 30% of the citizens were Muslim, 38% were traditionalist, 24% were Christian, and 8% were better. Traditional religions in Ghana have retained their intimate relation to family loyalties and local mores. Now 69% of citizens are Christians. Religious tolerance in Ghana is very high. In Ghana, Christian celebrations such as Christmas and Easter are recognized as national holidays. Portuguese brought Christianity to the country in the 15th century. Islam is also the religion of a number of Ghanaians especially in the Northern region.

Cultural Customs

The basic diet of the Ghanaians consisted of a starchy staple eaten with soup. The soup ingredients were mostly vegetables, animal protein, fish and hot peppers. Other food they ate were forest crops, corn and rice. The main food Fu Fu. Akan was their trade language. 9 languages were used in the Gahanian school system. Most festivals and rituals were held for purification, thanksgiving, dedication, and reunion. Kente is the most popular cloth for festive occasions. The cloth is commonly wore by men from the south and a smock for men in the north. The kente (cloth) identifies where a person is from and sometimes their stage in life.