Dwight D. Eisenhower

Kailyn Lee 7th

Election of 1952

  • Eisenhower: Republican party
  • Richard M. Nixon (anti communist wing of Republican party)
  • Democrat Adlai E. Stevenson
  • Nixon tapping government funds, known as “slush fund” and it was revealed

  • Eisenhower considered dropping Nixon from ticket but Nixon went on television and made a pitying speech known as the “Checkers Speech” (referencing his family dog, Checkers) and saved his place on the ticket

  • Eisenhower won the election by a large majority (442 electoral votes against 89 votes for democrat Stevenson)

Election of 1956

  • Republican Candidate: Dwight D. Eisenhower
  • Democratic Candidate: Adlai Stevenson
  • Eisenhower won the electoral vote

The Cold War

  • Tensions between U.S and USSR
  • Covert Operations
  • Eisenhower Doctrine: stated that U.S would provide military and economic assistance to Middle Eastern countries fighting communism
  • Containment: the idea that Communism would continue to spread and must be contained within Soviet Russia
  • 1958: Lebanon calls for aid
  • 1960: American U-2 Spy Plane show down in Russia
  • Suez Crisis
  • 17th Parallel

Joseph McCarthy

  • Senator Joseph McCarthy: very popular anti-communist leader who was elected to Senate as war-hero “Tailgunner Joe”

  • February 1950 speech in West VA, he accused Secretary of State Dean Acheson of employing 205 communist members- this speech brought him national visibility and republicans realized the usefulness of these attacks on the Democrats

  • Did the most damage to American traditions of fair play and free speech

  • Went too far when he attacked the U.S army; military men fought back in thirty-five days of televised hearings in the Spring of 1954

  • Political power of broadcasting was effective as up to 20 million Americans watched and McCarthy was brought down

  • Senate condemned him for “conduct unbecoming a member”

  • Died three years later due to chronic alcoholism

  • “McCarthy” term: label for the dangerous forces of unfairness and fear hat a democratic society can unleash only at its peril

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Desegregation in the South

  • Jim Crow laws governed all aspects of existence of blacks from the schoolroom to the restroom

  • Blacks dealt with separate social arrangements that kept them insulated from whites like segregated schools, used separate public toilets, drinking fountains, restaurants, and waiting rooms

  • 1944: An American Dilemma by Swedish scholar Gunnar Myrdal exposed the contradiction between America’s belief that all men are created equal and the treatment of blacks

  • Jackie Robinson: cracked the racial barrier in big-league baseball when he was signed with the Brooklyn dodgers in 1947

  • groups formed to fight against discrimination: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

  • Little Rock Crisis: In 1954, the Brown v. Board of Education case ruled that segregation in schools was unequal and nine students had enrolled into the high school; disagreements between Arkansas governor Faubus and Eisenhower arose

  • Montgomery Bus Boycott: Rosa Parks, a black seamstress, boarded a bus and sat in the “whites only” section and refused to give her seat up. She was arrested for violating Jim Crow laws but led to black boycott of city buses

  • Civil Rights Act of 1957: provided voting protections from blacks

Republican Policies

  • Liberal in Fiscal and Domestic affairs and conservative in global affairs
  • Called for lower taxes
  • Pushed for smaller government and more state power
  • Operation Wetback: targeted the Mexican illegal immigrants working in the US
  • Wanted to return the assimilationist goals regarding Native Americans; plan was dropped in 1961
  • Supported the Interstate Highway Act of 1956

Beginning of the Vietnam War

  • Vietnam leader Ho Chi Minh wanted independence from France
  • Turned to the Soviet Union in the 1950s after U.S. did not help secure ndependence.
  • The USSR supplied money and arms to the Vietnam forces
  • Eisenhower put in difficult position of supporting a French colonial possession in order to contain the USSR.

Space Race with the Soviets

  • October 4, 1957 Soviets launched the Sputnik I satellite into space and in November, they launched the satellite Sputnik II (with a dog). The two satellites represented Soviet’s superior industrial production through communism.

  • President Eisenhower established the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  • The Soviets new technological advancements made the U.S technological and educational system look poor so the NDEA was established to improve American education.

  • 1958 National Defense and Education Act (NDEA) authorized $887 million in loans to needy college students and in grants for the improvement of teaching sciences and languages.
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