Paleolithic and Neolithic Era

Brandon Fienco

Neanderthal:

The Neanderthals or Neandertals are an extinct species of human in the genus Homo, possibly a subspecies of Homo sapiens.

Cro-Magnon:

Cro-Magnon is a name that has been used to describe the first early modern humans of the European Upper Paleolithic.

How they survived? (Paleolithic Era)

The Paleolithic Period began more than 2,000,000 years ago. These people were nomads. In order to find food, the Paleolithic people often had to move from place to place, hunting and gathering. Because of the lack of food and the constant moving, populations tended to be small. These people usually died at a very early age because of hunger, disease, or injury.

Another name for the Old Stone Age

The Paleolithic Era

How long did it last?

2.6 million years

Ways that man lived or survived:

1. Technology

  • Paleolithic humans made tools of stone, bone, and wood. Mostly weapons to hunt like hand axes, bows and arrows, and spears.
  • Humans also learned how to create fire which helped keep warm and cook raw meats.

2. Shelter

  • In the Paleolithic period, people may have lived in tents or met under rock shelters to share food and ideas.
  • These shelters were often temporary because people had to move frequently to follow the wild animals they hunted for food.

3. Settlements

  • During the Paleolithic period, people traveled in bands of 20 to 60 people and lived in temporary settlements as they searched for food.

4. Nomads

  • The Paleolithic Period began more than 2,000,000 years ago. These people were nomads. In order to find food, the Paleolithic people often had to move from place to place, hunting and gathering. Because of the lack of food and the constant moving, populations tended to be small. These people usually died at a very early age because of hunger, disease, or injury.

5. Nutrition and Diet

  • Paleolithic hunting and gathering people ate varying proportions of leafy vegetables, fruit, nuts and insects, meat, fish, and shellfish
  • The Stone Age hunter’s food contained large amounts of protein from fish, lean mean, herbs and coarse vegetables

How they Survived? (Neolithic Era)

About 12,000 years ago (10,000 B.C.) an important discovery was made. Humans learned to farm. This became known as the Neolithic Period or New Stone Age. The Neolithic Revolution was a major turning point in history. In addition to learning to farm, man learned to domesticate (tame) animals. In doing so, life drastically changed for mankind.

Another name for New Stone Age

The Neolithic Era

How long did it last?

About 12,000 years ago (10,000 B.C.)

Ways that man lived or survived:

1. Agriculture

  • Once man learned to farm, they began to settle. Permanent settlements began to develop in river valleys. The rivers provided fertile soil and water for irrigation.
  • In order to farm more effectively, man developed new skills and tools. They made tools that were more complex and made farming easier.
  • They quickly learned that animals could be used to do work. In addition, they developed ways to measure their seed for planting, keep track of time, build stronger homes and boats that could be used for trade and travel.

2. Domestication

  • Once agriculture started gaining momentum, human activity resulted in the selective breeding.
  • When hunter-gathering began to be replaced by sedentary food production it became more profitable to keep animals close at hand. Therefore, it became necessary to bring animals permanently to their settlements,

3. Cultural Diffusion

  • As more communities emerged, there was greater interaction among the people and, in time, humans began to trade with one another.
  • Cultural diffusion increased. Life was changed rapidly during this time.