Earth's interior

By:Reid Windmeyer

What are the features of the earth's cruts,mantel and core

The Earth's crust is an extremely thin layer of rock, like the skin of an apple in relative terms. It amounts to less than half of 1 percent of the planet. But the crust is exceptionally important, and not just because we live on it. The crust can be thicker than 80 kilometers in some spots, less than one kilometer in others.


The mantle is the thick layer of hot, solid rock between the earth's crust and the molten iron core. It makes up the bulk of the Earth, accounting for two-thirds of the planet's mass. The mantle starts about 30 kilometers down and is about 2900 kilometers thick

The earth's core is hot dense ball in the center of the earth. The core can be found 2,900 kilometers below the earth's surface. And has a radius of about 3,485 kilometers.


The outer core is a liquid layer about 2,300km thick and composed of iron nickel that lies above the earth's inner core. The outer body lies 2,890km Beneath the earth's surface. It can get up to 4000-5000 degrees celsius. Because the earth's outer core moves around the inner core,Earth's magnetism is created.


The earth's inner core is 1,250km thick. It's like a ball of solid nickel and ferrum. It can get up to 5000-6000 degrees celsius. It's so hot it melts the outer cores metal ores. It's the hottest layer.

How do Geologist learn about the Earth’s Interior?

The two main types of waves used to observe Earth's interior are P-waves and S-waves. P-waves are pressure. S-waves are seismic waves. P-waves can go through liquid and solid material, where as S-waves can only go through solids. P-waves and S-waves are also used to measure the distance of earthquakes from an observation station.

The inner core of the Earth is mostly composed of dense material. There are three main shells that make up the planet Earth: the crust, mantle and the core. Earth's interior is composed of the mantle and core, both of which are about equal in thickness. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the core forms only "15 percent of the Earth's volume, where as the mantle occupies 84 percent." The crust makes up only 1 percent of the total composition of the Earth. Geologists are improving their understanding of Earth's interior by doing laboratory experiments on rocks at high pressure and analyzing earthquake records on computers.

Vocabulary words

pressure=the force applied to a unit area of surface


Density= the amount per unit size


Radiation= energy that is radiated ar transmitted in the form of waves rays or particles


basalt= a dark rock with fine grains


granite=a rock with light color and coarse grains.