Cell Organels

Elijah Anthony

Cell Membrane

the boundary between the cell and its environment. It regulates what enters and what exits. To protect the cell from its surroundings what enters and exit.

Present in both plant and animal

Cell Wall

Cell walls are made of specialized sugars called cellulose. Cellulose provides a crated framework for a plant to survive. Provides framework for cell to survive. Found in plants.
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Cytoplasm

Consists of all of the contents outside of the nucleus and enclosed within the cell membrane of a rest. Clear in appearance gel-like composed mainly of water contains enzymes, salts, and etc. Found in both plant and animals.
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Nucleus

nucleus is a membrane bound structure contains the cell hereditary info and contains cell growth and reproduction . Nucleus acts like a brain of the cell helps control movement, reproduction and etc. Found in both plant and animals
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Nuclear Membrane

Double layered membrane surrounding the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell separating the nuclear from the cytoplasm. The membrane that encloses nucleus. Found in both plant and animals/
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Nucleolus

The nucleolus is a round body located inside the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. It is not surrounded by a membrane, but sits in the nucleus. The nucleolus takes up around 25% of the volume of the nucleus. This structure is made up of proteins and ribonucleic acids (RNA). Its main function is to rewrite ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and combine it with proteins. This results in the formation of incomplete ribosomes. Found in both plant and animal.
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Centrioles

A centriole is a small set of microtubules arranged in a specific way. There are nine groups of microtubules. When two centrioles are found next to each other, they are usually at right angles. The centrioles are found in pairs and move towards the poles (opposite ends) of the nucleus when it is time for cell division. All animal cells have two small organelles known as centrioles. The centrioles help the cell to divide. Found in animal cells.
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Chromatin

Chromatin is the combination of DNA, histone, and other proteins that makes up chromosomes. It is found inside the nuclear envelope of eukaryotic cells. The functions of chromatin are to package DNA into a smaller volume to fit in the cell, to strengthen the DNA to allow mitosis and meiosis, and to control gene expression and DNA replication. Found in both plant and animal cells.

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Ribosomes

Ribosomes - Protein Construction Teams. Cells need to make proteins. Enzymes made of proteins are used to help speed up biological processes. Ribosomes are the cellular component that make proteins from all amino acids. Found in both plant and animal.
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Golgi Apparatus

The Golgi apparatus or Golgi complex is found in most cells. It is another packaging organelle like the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The Golgi apparatus gathers simple molecules and combines them to make molecules that are more complex. Found in both plant and animal cells.
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Endoplasmic Reticulum

Another organelle in the cell is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). While the function of the nucleus is to act as the cell brain, the ER functions as a manufacturing and packaging system. It works closely with the Golgi apparatus, ribososmes, mRNA, and tRNA. Found in both plant and animal cells.
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Mitochondria

Mitochondria are known as the powerhouses of the cell. They are organelles that act like a digestive system which takes in nutrients, breaks them down, and creates energy rich molecules for the cell. The biochemical processes of the cell are known as cellular respiration. Many of the reactions involved in cellular respiration happen in the mitochondria. Mitochondria are the working organelles that keep the cell full of energy.
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Chloroplast

Chloroplasts are the food producers of the cell. The organelles are only found in plant cells and some protists such as algae. Animal cells do not have chloroplasts. Chloroplasts work to convert light energy of the Sun into sugars that can be used by cells. The entire process is called photosynthesis and it all depends on the little green chlorophyll molecules in each chloroplast.
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Lysosomes

You will find organelles called lysosomes in nearly every animal-like eukaryotic cell. Lysosomes hold enzymes that were created by the cell. The purpose of the lysosome is to digest things. They might be used to digest food or break down the cell when it dies.
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Peroxisomes

There are many ways that peroxisomes are similar to lysosomes. They are small vesicles found around the cell. They have a single membrane that contains digestive enzymes for breaking down toxic materials in the cell. They differ from lysosomes in the type of enzyme they hold. Peroxisomes hold on to enzymes that require oxygen (oxidative enzymes). Lysosomes have enzymes that work in oxygen-poor areas and lower pH.
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Vacuole

Vacuoles are storage bubbles found in cells. They are found in both animal and plant cells but are much larger in plant cells. Vacuoles might store food or any variety of nutrients a cell might need to survive. They can even store waste products so the rest of the cell is protected from contamination. Eventually, those waste products would be sent out of the cell.
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Cytoskeleton

The cytoskeleton is a series of intercellular proteins that help a cell with shape, support, and movement. Cytoskeleton has three main structural components: microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules
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