Peter I the Great of Russia

Russia's Beardless Reformation


Expand Russian territory, gained ports of the Baltic Sea, created powerful military, first Russian navy, ended Russia's isolation.


Adoption of western ideas, technology and culture.

Improved western technology, improved education, and simplified Russian alphabets.


Made nobles boyars to serve the state in civilian or military jobs.

Made them shave their beards, and made them get rid of their fancy clothes, to replace them with western clothes.

Peasants / Surfs

Peasants took care of the boyars land. Forced surfs to become soldiers to work on roads, canals, and other government projects.

Beard Tax

Taxed for bathing, fishing, beekeeping, and having beards.

Peter the Great

All institutions under his control including the Orthodox Church. Adopted mercantilism policies to pay for the reformations. He became the most autocratic of Europe's absolute monarchs.


Improved water-ways, developed mining and textile manufacturing, and backed new trading companies.


Strengthen military, expand Russian borders, centralize royal power, strengthen anti-Turkish coalition, westernize Russia.
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