Scientific Editorial

Kaylee Clark, David Maslin, Stephanie Johnson, Monroe Porter

Scientific Editorial

Since 1998, scientists have been studying the use of stem cells from human embryos and their ability to develop into different cell types in the body. They are an internal repair system that has the potential to cure many human diseases. However, the study of stem cells in human embryos has started a huge controversy. Many people believe that using a human embryo is wrong. People are asking if a human embryo is equivalent to a human child, which is causing a lot of people to disagree with the use of stem cells. Scientists are trying other ways, they have tried using adult cells, but the embryo stem cells work a lot faster.

Cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that takes place in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually. Cloning is very controversial and a lot of people are against it, although a lot of people are for it too. Scientists all over the world are trying to find ways to clone safely and effectively but they have been hitting road blocks. Government restrictions and moral obligations are getting it the way of cloning. Cloning should be legalized in first world countries; cloning can and will further our knowledge of genetics, save countless lives, and will change our world as we know it.

GMOs are genetically modified organisms that can be resistant and sustain against a changing environment, be resistant against pesticides, and produce more sustainable livestock. Although they are not healthy to human consumption and can cause allergic reactions, damaged organs, and increasing in sickness, they are still sold across the United States without labels. The benefits of GMOs in organisms is sustainability, but the harmful effect they can have on humans and animals is what needs to be limited. Science should not be limited to produce more resistant and sustainable organisms, however it should be limited for the harmful effects and be labeled in stores where they're sold.

When the idea of cloning a living organism crossed our minds, seemed like a fantasy; however, in the 1950’s when scientists successfully cloned frogs by taking the nucleus of one one tadpole and inserting it into another tadpole, that developed into an adult egg containing all the genetic material of the other tadpole, our minds forever. The world is constantly evolving, and with the help of cloning it is evolving even quicker. The innovation of cloning has given since some limitations, but also continues to give us further knowledge and ideas.

With all these new innovations; Stem cell research, GMOs, and cloning, there has been many controversies. Good things and bad things have come from these innovations. So the question is, should science have limits? Should science have restrictions? In all of our opinions, we believe science should not have limits. With all the positive outcomes and the benefits that come with new innovation, scientist and science should not have restrictions on what can and cannot be done.

Stem cell research is very beneficial and useful. “Stem cells are undifferentiated, scientists may be able to prompt them into becoming whatever type of cell is needed.” Embryos can help a lot of people and can cure a lot of diseases or have the potential to cure them. Many scientists have restrictions they are bound by. They have a protocol they need to live by. Scientists should not have restrictions. How are they supposed to help people or help the world if they have limits in what they can or cannot do. What they can test on and what they can't test on. What they can experiment with and can't. Many great mysterious have been solved because of science. Many things have been discovered because of science. Many things have been proven because of science. There should be no limits when it comes to science.

“Some researchers are looking at cloning as a way to create stem cells that are genetically identical to an individual. These cells could then be used for medical purposes, possibly even for growing whole organs. And stem cells cloned from someone with a disease could be grown in culture and studied to help researchers understand the disease and develop treatments”.

Cloning is very controversial, but there are many positive outcomes that come from it. From our personal standpoint, seeing our or other family members struggles everyday, and dying from sickness that could have been prevented we want anything there is to help my family. Because of research we have found that stem cells can be grow to replace damaged tissues or organs that a body is trying to fight off. By using this technology and human cloning can help produced much needed healthy tissue to stay alive.

“Genetically modified foods have been linked to toxic and allergic reactions, sick, sterile, and dead livestock, and damage to virtually every organ studied in lab animals. The effects on humans of consuming these new combinations of proteins produced in GMOs are unknown and have not been studied.”

Although the benefits of genetically modified organisms are great for being able to keep crops and livestock “healthy” and adaptable, producing genetically modified organisms should be restricted. They should be labeled in stores and should be researched more to find a better way to create resistant crops and bulkier livestock. Being an innovator or inventor in this way would be able to make a genetically modified organism as natural as possible with only parts to that organism that benefit the plant or animal but does not harm humans or the rest of the environment.

In today's society the meaning of “ the fittest survives” doesn't necessarily mean being physically dominate over others. The smartest people with the most knowledge tend to thrive, allowing them to make the world we love in a better place. “Human behavior flows from three main sources: desire, emotion, and knowledge.” ( Plato). Not legalizing cloning will hurt others in many ways. Knowledge of cloning is so minium because cloning is seen as “playing god”. Think of it this way, if your loved one needed a kidney transplant and cloning was the only way of saving their life would you say yes to cloning, or no? Inventing cloning was a brilliant idea but if you don't let people innovate than we will be stuck in the same rut we’ve been in for years. By letting cloning free our knowledge of genetics and genetic coding could be vast, making it possible to bring back extinct animals to even increasing the number of years humans can live.

“Everything is theoretically impossible, until it is done”-Robert A. Heinlein. Even though many people believe researching embryos, GMOs, and cloning is very harmful or against the law, this research in the end is very beneficial. With all the research, it is proven that all this experimenting, there are more positive outcomes than negative ones. It has been more helpful than harmful. That should be enough right there. Scientists shouldn't have any problems with their research. These kinds of research should continue because those who it will help all of us, and better the world, in the end, Science should not and will not have limits.


David Maslin- Cloning

Cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that takes place in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually. Cloning is very controversial and a lot of people are against it, although a lot of people are for it too. Scientists all over the world are trying to find ways to clone safely and effectively but they have been hitting road blocks. Government restrictions and moral obligations are getting it the way of cloning. Cloning should be legalized in first world countries; cloning can and will further our knowledge of genetics, save countless lives, and will change our world as we know it.

In today's society the meaning of “ the fittest survives” doesn't necessarily mean being physically dominate over others. The smartest people with the most knowledge tend to thrive, allowing them to make the world we love in a better place. “Human behavior flows from three main sources: desire, emotion, and knowledge.” ( Plato). Not legalizing cloning will hurt others in many ways. Knowledge of cloning is so minium because cloning is seen as “playing god”. Think of it this way, if your loved one needed a kidney transplant and cloning was the only way of saving their life would you say yes to cloning, or no? Inventing cloning was a brilliant idea but if you don't let people innovate than we will be stuck in the same rut we’ve been in for years. By letting cloning free our knowledge of genetics and genetic coding could be vast, making it possible to bring back extinct animals to even increasing the number of years humans can live.

Leukemia, a common bone disease that kills someone every nine seconds, yes seconds. Bone marrow cells are one of the few cells in the body that can't make more or reproduce, allowing death rates to skyrocket. Cloning would allow us to save 57,000 people in just the US alone with leukemia. Stem cell research which is apart of cloning could cure countless types of cancer, blood diseases, and spinal cord injuries in a matter of years if we made it legal. Innovating stem cells to have the capability to become any cell in the body will allow for so many breakthroughs in the scientific world as well as the healthcare world.

Life is all about evolving and change. We could have the capability of changing the world. What if we could all live till 150, i bet most people would be all for cloning. The possibilities cloning brings to the table are endless. Everything from bringing back extinct animals like woolly mammoths to curing cancer and other killer diseases. We could make endangered animal populations grow and could potentially bring back the natural population numbers they were once at.

Although there are a lot of pros to cloning there are a lot of cons too. Embryonic stem cells come from unborn fetuses, killing the fetus for science. Truthfully we don't know a lot about cloning yet making it hard to reassure the cloning process 100% accurate. The human population is divided in half, one side all for cloning maybe because they have a loved one who is dying, and the other half completely against it because they feel like it's taking young life for a human that has already lived.

Stephanie Johnson- GMOs

GMOs are genetically modified living organisms that have been changed through DNA manipulation. Most genetically modified organisms are not labeled and can be sold in stores across the country in the United States. According to a statistic from the NON-GMO project, “Currently commercialized genetically modified crops in the U.S. include soy (94%), cotton (90%), canola (90%), sugar beets (95%), corn (88%), Hawaiian papaya (more than 50%), zucchini and yellow squash (over 24,000 acres).” These food items are not considered ‘safe’ for consumption. In fact, across Europe genetically modified foods are banned from being sold from human consumption. In an article from Responsible Technology they explain how “Genetically modified foods have been linked to toxic and allergic reactions, sick, sterile, and dead livestock, and damage to virtually every organ studied in lab animals. The effects on humans of consuming these new combinations of proteins produced in GMOs are unknown and have not been studied.” The products sold in stores are not labeled and not required the have any identification on the of being genetically modified.

Scientist created genetically modified organisms for a few reasons: to supply more for the demand by the market., to make crops produce their own pesticide to bugs and also be resistant against pesticides sprayed, and also make livestock larger with more fat and muscle. The benefits of GMOs are what makes plants and animals sustainable. Modifying an organism’s DNA can make them more resistant to weather, pesticides, and even be able to create their own aura that wards off bugs. In livestock it can make them larger, in plants it can make them stronger and resistant to dying from pesticides.

In many ways, the monster in Frankenstein by Mary Shelley is a genetically modified organism in itself. For example, the monster was created, not born. Meaning, the monsters DNA had been manipulated to make the monster live and survive in this world. Because he had been manipulated he, like a genetically modified organism, is harmful to humans and the environment. The most common characteristic that the monster has with genetically modified organisms is that he adapts to the environment quickly, is resistant, and sustainable. His creator was an inventor, but not an innovator. Although he found a way to create life,as he explains his new found knowledge “So much has been done, exclaimed the soul of Frankenstein—more, far more, will I achieve; treading in the steps already marked, I will pioneer a new way, explore unknown powers, and unfold to the world the deepest mysteries of creation.” ( he did not innovate to find a better way. He invented this monster but left him to be harmful to the environment without putting more research into what he had done and the monster he had created.

Although the benefits of genetically modified organisms are great for being able to keep crops and livestock “healthy” and adaptable, producing genetically modified organisms should be restricted. They should be labeled in stores and should be researched more to find a better way to create resistant crops and bulkier livestock. Being an innovator or inventor in this way would be able to make a genetically modified organism as natural as possible with only parts to that organism that benefit the plant or animal but does not harm humans or the rest of the environment.


Kaylee Clark- Stem Cells

Since 1998, scientists have been studying the use of stem cells from human embryos and their ability to develop into different cell types in the body. They are an internal repair system that has the potential to cure many human diseases. However, the study of stem cells in human embryos has started a huge controversy. Many people believe that using a human embryo is wrong. People are asking if a human embryo is equivalent to a human child, which is causing a lot of people to disagree with the use of stem cells. Scientists are trying other ways, they have tried using adult cells, but the embryo stem cells work a lot faster. These scientists are also struggling with funding in order to complete their stem cell research. Should scientist continue their research with stem cells from embryos? Should science have its limits? Scientists should continue their research with stem cells from embryos because science has no limits. Although many people believe it is the equivalent of abortion, this is not true. Stem cell research should continue because it is the women’s choice to donate, they are definitely put to good use, and science has no limits.

When the stem cells are being donated or not donated, it is completely up to the women who choose what they want to do with their embryos. The women choose if they want their embryos to be used for research. It is their body, and some of the “Embryos that have been fertilized within a woman’s body are not used. The blastocysts used for science are donated of free will with informed consent of the couple.” They ask for the person's consent. They are not being forced or persuaded, they are choosing to go have their cells donated. Some people may believe it is illegal or breaking rules, People think this research is the equivalent of abortion, but this has nothing to do with abortion. These women have free will. Scientists, “first ask for signed consent from a patient” then they get the cells to begin their research. These women want to help science and medicine; they want to help other people. These women believe in donating.

Using stem cell research isn't wasted; it is put to good use. Each embryo that is donated is tested on, they aren’t thrown away. There has been some controversy that these embryos are being researched for the right thing, or not being put to use. This is not the case, scientists care about what they do and who they may save. What happens if they were not used? “Another argument for embryonic stem cell research is that the embryos are left over from in-vitro fertilization and would otherwise be destroyed, so they should instead be put to greater use.” No one likes when things go to waste, like money, food, clothes, etc.… Each embryo is precious and not taking for granted. What would happen if embryo research stopped? “Supporters also contend that the societal costs of many diseases and conditions, both in monetary and suffering aspects, means that the ethical concerns regarding embryonic stem cell usage are not sufficient to warrant discontinuation of this promising therapy.” It is proven that stem cell research is very beneficial and useful. “Stem cells are undifferentiated, scientists may be able to prompt them into becoming whatever type of cell is needed.” Embryos can help a lot of people and can cure a lot of diseases or have the potential to cure them. Many scientists have restrictions they are bound by. They have a protocol they need to live by. With all these though, scientists should not have restrictions. How are they supposed to help people or help the world if they have limits what they can or cannot do. What they can test on and what they can't test on. What they can experiment with and can't. Many great mysterious have been solved because of science. Many things have been discovered because of science. Many things have been proven because of science. There should be no limits when it comes to science. When it comes to stem cells, they should not need to have limits. They need to be able to test them however and whenever they can. With the research they have found that “The cells may also be able to replace damaged or sick cells in a patient with an injury or degenerative disease”. Why should there be a limit on that if it can cure a disease or help cells. It can do so much, but only if the research continues. There cannot be any restrictions or limits, “In addition to understanding normal human development more completely, human embryonic stem cells are providing key tools to help us study the origins of many devastating diseases that afflict babies and young children. Such research may even help to uncover targets for drug development. ... Human embryonic stem cells remain the gold standard for pluripotency: to prohibit work on human embryonic stem cells will thus do severe collateral damage to the new and exciting research on iPS [induced pluripotent stem] cells”. Stem cell research must continue and not be interrupted. This will cause more harm them it will good. Stem cell research could be another great mystery or another great thing proven, if there are no limits.

With stem cell research, it is a new invention, it is a new creation. People are exploring ideas. A person who can do that and test theories and use experiments, are inventors. Victor Frankenstein created new life, he was an inventor. He once said, “So much has been done, exclaimed the soul of Frankenstein—more, far more, will I achieve; treading in the steps already marked, I will pioneer a new way, explore unknown powers, and unfold to the world the deepest mysteries of creation.” He created a monster, he was a creator. Just like the scientists, they are inventors. They are trying to create new ways to save lives, instead of creating them like frankenstein. They are innovators, any person can be an innovator. If they put their minds to it, people can create anything, they can do anything, they can be anything.

“Everything is theoretically impossible, until it is done”-Robert A. Heinlein. Even though many people believe researching embryos is like abortion or against the law, embryo research is actually very beneficial. With stem cell research, it is proven that these cells can renew themselves almost indefinitely, they have the special ability to differentiate into cells with specialized characteristics and functions, and they are unspecialized cells which give rise to specialized cells. That should be enough right there. Scientists shouldn't have any problems with their research. Stem cell research should continue because those who donate give their consent, they are never wasted, and science will have no limits.

Monroe Porter- Cloning

When the idea of cloning a living organism crossed our minds, it seemed like a fantasy; however, in the 1950’s when scientists successfully cloned frogs by taking the nucleus of one one tadpole and inserting it into another tadpole, that developed into an adult egg containing all the genetic material of the other tadpole, our minds forever. The world is constantly evolving, and with the help of cloning it is evolving even quicker. The innovation of cloning has given since some limitations, but also continues to give us further knowledge and ideas. Science is what changes this world in positive and negative ways; therefore, I believe Science should have limitations because of ethic issues, its ability to take away from human identity and uniqueness, and how we could create a world of chaos.

As interesting as cloning is, it is very controversial. Seemingly that a majority of citizens are against the idea of cloning, there are always some positives regardless of the negatives. From a personal standpoint seeing family members have everyday struggles, and dying from sickness and could potentially be prevented I want anything there is out there to help my family. Because of research we have found that stem cells can be grow to replace damaged tissues or organs that a body is trying to fight off. “Some researchers are looking at cloning as a way to create stem cells that are genetically identical to an individual. These cells could then be used for medical purposes, possibly even for growing whole organs. And stem cells cloned from someone with a disease could be grown in culture and studied to help researchers understand the disease and develop treatments”. By using this technology and human cloning can help produced much needed healthy tissue to stay alive. On that subject cancer is also a disease that could be cured with the help of cloning. Scientists want to find out why cancerous cells lose their differentiation, and with this information may be the key to understanding how to cure cancer. There are so many diseases that we as a nation constantly look into to help cure; however, with the ban of cloning and its technology may leave us short of many undiscovered findings.

Mix emotions revolving the idea of cloning brings me to my next point of the negative sides of it. With low percentage rate of success and with the great deal of risk and uncertainty that we shouldn't risk a human life on science. Ethically many people are against cloning because it can result in miscarriages, abortions, and births with bad side effects. Along with ethically, religious views come into play, Genesis 1:27 says,”So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them” which tells us God is the creator of life, while human cloning is wrong and not right to be doing. To add, it brings that thought of human uniqueness and identity into conversation because a clone would be “created” not put on this earth like every other human. It's scary to think that with cloning could create a life of opposites and clones may not have as much power as humans, or treated different, or have issues with their body if not created properly. There are so many thoughts, issues and controversy over the talk of cloning; would it help this world? Maybe. Could it hurt our world? Maybe. That's the big question. Can cloning be the next big thing that sparks this eras science and changes the world forever?

Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein demonstrates the positives and negatives of cloning/ creating life. From the eyes of Victor his creation was an obsession that turned directions when he saw the outcomes of this horrific invention. His ideas and thoughts started as an idea of the future ending in sadness and disbelief; cloning may allow for an individual to pick the characteristics and traits of a clone, and as Victor shows us it can go horribly wrong when he sees what he actually created. A huge monster that was filled with rage and anger was the last thing Victor thought about happening. On his wedding day he becomes scared for his bride and “has remorse and guilt” about creating this monster ruining his life (Shelley 202). As I mentioned cloning can go very wrong with a few glitches involved and as God says he is a creator of life and shows just why he is when someone tries to step in and make there own life; disasters as a minimum I would say.

With the potential knowledge we can find with cloning, this innovation has been given limitations. Even with the positives giving it some upset, the downsides of cloning over run the positives showing us exactly why we have to restrict science. If we don't limit science we don't know what monsters we could see in the future. Bottom line, with all the talk it comes down to the fact that I believe Science should have limitations because of ethic issues, its ability to take away from human identity and uniqueness, and how we could create a world of chaos.

Big image

LET THEM BE


Leave scientists alone, they are changing our future.

Works Cited

Works Cited


Mckee, Rick. "Cloning." The Cagle Post. N.p., 1 Apr. 2001. Web. 16 Mar. 2016.


Parisi, Mark. "Snow's Potential Medical Benefits." Off the Mark Cartoons. N.p., n.d.

Web. 16 Mar. 2016.


Reed, Swanson. DON’T HOLD BACK YOUR CLAIM: 7 COMMON MYTHS ABOUT THE R&D TAX CREDIT. N.p., n.d. Web.


Smith, Jefferey. "GMO Education - Institute for Responsible Technology."Institute for

Responsible

Technology. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2016.


"The Pros and Cons of Cloning: Is It Worth the Risk?" Udemy Blog. N.p., n.d. Web. 04

Mar. 2016.


"Therapeutic Cloning: Stem Cell Research." Genetics and Genetic Engineering. Barbara

Wexler. 2011 ed. Detroit: Gale, 2011. Information Plus Reference Series.

Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 3 Mar. 2016.


Watson, Stephanie, and Craig Freudenrich, PH.D. "How Stem Cells

Work."HowStuffWorks. HowStuffWorks.com, n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2016

<http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/cellular-microscopic/stem-cell1.htm>.



"Why Clone?" Why Clone? N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2016.


"11 Reasons to Laugh at GMOs." Rodale's Organic Life. N.p., 30 Oct. 2013. Web. 16

Mar. 2016.