Long Term Effects of Sport on You

How your body's systems react to exersise in the long run

energy systems

When you take part in exercise, your mitochondria and enzymes work to create ATP for energy to allow you to work. If you push the mitochondria and enzymes, they struggle to cope with demand, therefore creating more to be able to supply the demand. With more mitochondria and enzymes, the reactions to create ATP can be carried a lot more efficiently, allowing the person to exercise harder for longer.


Fat is the most energy dense nutrient utilized during exercise, with one gram providing 9 jouls of energy. Following this fats are the primary fuel source for muscle during low intensity exercise. Fats can account for approximately 75 per cent of the total energy required.


If you reach your latica acid threshold at low intensity exercise this means that your aerobic system in your muscles is not working well. As you increase your fitness you are able to use oxygen to break down lactate to carbon dioxide and water this preventing lacate from pouring into the blood.

cardiovascular system


During aerobic exercise, the size of the heart increases in particular the left ventricle as a result of this the left ventricle wall thickens this forms a bigger muscle. As the left ventricle is larger it therefore can force a stronger contraction leading to more blood being pump out the heart per beat


As you participate in exercise, your exercising muscles require more blood. Your stroke volume increases as more blood is being pumped with each heartbeat. Your stroke volume increases until your exercise intensity reaches approximately 50 percent of your maximal oxygen which is your VO2max.


Aerobic exercise can alter the number of red blood cells in several ways. Red blood cells carry oxygen and carbon dioxide through the bloodstream. In general, endurance training increases the number of red blood cells. Red blood cells contain a protein called haemoglobin this is used to bind oxygen and carbon dioxide for transport around the body.

respiritory system

The beneficial changes within the circulatory system from exercise include making the heart stronger, providing more oxygen throughout the body for improved functioning and helping people to react better to stress while gaining physical benefits. These benefits can be achieved through regular exercise, usually defined as vigorous activity for at least 30 minutes 3 to 5 days a week. The improvements can be seen soon after the start of an exercise program and will continue throughout life with regular exercising. Moderately intense exercise may include everything i.e. jogging and swimming

muscular skeletal system

  • Increased numbers of mitochondria means an increase in the rate of energy production.
  • The muscles, bones and ligaments become stronger to cope with the additional stresses and impact put through them.
  • The amount of myoglobin within skeletal muscle increases, which allows more Oxygen to be stored within the muscle, and transported to the mitochondria.
  • Muscles are capable of storing a larger amount of glycogen for energy.
  • Enzymes involved in energy production become more concentrated and efficient to aid the speed of metabolism.