Food Ecology

By:Claire Garrison


Nutrition Ecology- Inter-disciplinary science, which examines all components of the food chain and evaluates their effects from four main points:

1.Human Health

2.The Environment



Vegan-A person who doesn’t eat or use animal products

Vegetarian-A person who doesn’t eat meat, sometimes for moral, religious, or health reasons

Meat Eater-A person whose diet includes meat

Organic- Of/relating to, or derived from living matter

Non-Organic- not relating to or derived from living matter

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GMO Foods

GMO Foods- Specific changes introduced into their DNA using genetic engineering.

Selective Breeding- Breed for particular traits domesticated.

Mutation Breeding- exposing seeds to chemical or radiation generate mutants with desirable traits.


Genetically modified crops began in 1994 and it is also know as Food Biotechnology, Industrial fermentation and Genetic Engineering. It all started with milk and cheese to speed up the fermentation in the milk and cheese. In 1946 people found a way to transfer the DNA between the organisms. The first plant that it worked on was in 1983. It is more commonly used in corn, soybeans, and cotton.


Plants are engineered fro insect resistance, fungal resistance, viral, herbicide, changed nutritional content, improved taste, and improved storage. This is done by adding one or more genes to a genome in the plant or adding additional chemicals to an animal. For example, Bovine Growth Hormone is the peptide hormone by cows pituitary gland but its man made.

GMOs Harmful Effects

Some concerns are primary concerns new allergens, increased toxicity decreased nutrition and antibiotic resistance.

1.Multiple toxins from GMOs detected in maternal and fetal blood.

2.DNA from genetically modified crops transfer into humans who eat them.

  1. GMO linked to gluten disorders affect 18 million Americans.
  2. Study links genetically modified corn to rat tumors
  3. Glyphosate induces human breast cancer cells growth via estrogen receptors.
  4. Glyphosate linked to birth defects
  5. Glyphosate linked to autism, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's.
  6. Chronically ill humans higher glyphosate then healthy humans
  7. link GMO animal feed to serve stomach inflammation and enlarged uteri in pigs
  8. GMO risk assessment on very little scientific evidence in the sense that testing methods recommended aren’t adequate to ensure safety.

Rat studies show depressed immune system,reproductive dysfunction, cancer, allergies and toxicity.

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Exercise Tips!!

1.Be consistent in your workout

2.Follow an Effective exercise Routine.

3.Have realistic goals.

4.Be happy in your everyday life. It will make you more excited about working out.

5.Be patient gaining muscle and losing fat takes time.

6.Get inspired about working out.

7.It helps to have a buddy work out with you. So follow the buddy system.

8.Make your workout plan fit your life time wise and what you can do.

9.Watch the clock as well as your body don't over do yourself. You will get there!

10.If all else call in a professional and they will help keep you on track! :)

GMOs and Cancer

GMOs can cause long-term effects of Monsanto genetically modified corn.

It can cause premature death, tumors, organ damage, and liver damage. This research has been done on rats. We are still unsure on how GMOS effect humans and what all effects that they can have.

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What makes a food Processed?

Processed foods have been altered from their natural state, either for safety reasons or because it makes them easier to store of easier to use.

Different Diets

Meat eaters Vs. Vegan- Vegan goods generally are lower in fat and are meatless diets or a vegan diet consume less unhealthy fats, more fiber, and more vitamin C.

Vegan Vs. Vegetarian- Vegetarians consume dairy products and eggs. Vegetarians are also normally a diet and Vegan is a lifestyle.

What do dietitian say?

What are the disadvantages to GMOs?

Ashley Colpaart says " I think the biggest disadvantages are decreased biodiversity, the effect on soil microbes, and a lack of funding in agriculture for agroecological systems. Specifically, we continue to perpetuate a reliance on fossil fuels in agriculture, and we need to move away from chemical dependence in agriculture and carefully consider the toxicity that happens downstream to humans and wildlife."

Christine McCullum-Gómez says "overuse of the technology has resulted in an acceleration of weeds resistant to glyphosate, the world’s most popular herbicide. In response to the rise in glyphosate resistance, farmers have turned to using other herbicides, often needing to apply several herbicides in a single growing season, to protect their crops"

About the dietitians

Ashley Colpaart MS, RD, is the chair main for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics’ Hunger and Environmental Nutrition Dietetic Practice Group she also previously worked at the Tierra Miguel Foundation.

Christine McCullum-Gómez, PhD, RD, LD, he is an expert in community food service, public health nutrition, sustainable food systems, and school and worksite wellness. She is also a column editor for the Journal of Hunger and Environmental Nutrition. She has also received many award one is the National Cancer Institute postdoctoral fellowship.