Plant Reproduction

By: Laura, Brittany, Ryone

Asexual Reproduction

Vegetative reproduction creates offspring that are identical to the original plant. This requires all systems in the original plant for the offspring to be able to grow and reproduce. It doesn't create seeds or pollen to reproduce but spores. To get more spores, the plant goes through mitosis. Green algae, bryophytes (group of plants that have specialized reproductive organs but lack vascular tissue), and seedless plants use this way to reproduce asexually.

Basic Sexual Reproduction

The basic sexual life cycle has a diploid phase and a haploid phase (alternation of generations). The diploid phase is called sporophyte (spore-producing plant). The haploid phase is called gametophyte (gamete-producing plant). The cycle starts with a sporophyte producing haploid spores through meiosis. The spores grow into gametophytes which produce gametes (reproductive cells). These gametes are sperm and egg cells. A sperm and egg fuse during fertilization to produce a zygote (diploid). The zygote will then become a sporophyte.
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Green Algae Sexual Reproduction

Green Algae will release gametes that fuse into a zygote (sporophyte). The zygote will grow until it divides by meiosis to produce four flagellated haploid cells.
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Bryophytes Sexual Reproduction

When the gametophyte becomes mature, gametes are formed in the reproductive structures at the tips of the gametophyte. Archegonia (produces eggs) and Antheridia (produces sperm) are the two different reproductive structures. Some bryophytes produce both types of reproductive structures but others only produce one or the other. A sperm and a egg cell fuse to make a zygote.
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Seedless Vascular Plant Sexual Reproduction

In seedless vascular plants, the gametophyte grow separate from the sporophyte. Sperm is produced in the antheridia and eggs are produced in the archegonia. A sperm and a egg fuse in fertilization to produce a zygote which grows into a sporophyte plant.
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Seed Plant Sexual Reproduction

Seed Plants are separate between angiosperms (flowering plants) and gymnosperms (cone-producing plants).

Angiosperm: Sperm is produced in a pollen grain (male gametophyte) which is carried to the female reproductive structure by wind or animals. Pollination is what the transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structure to the female reproductive structure. A zygote is produced during fertilization inside a seed and is surrounded by the seed coat (layer that protects and surrounds embryo). When the conditions are right the embryo begins to grow again till it forms a mature plant.

Gymnosperms: Pollen cones (male) release pollen grains which travel in the wind till they reach a seed cone (female). The pollen grains are caught in a sticky section of the seed cone and is pulled inside the cone to the ovule (where the female gametophytes develop). The pollen grain splits open and creates a pollen tube (contains two haploid sperm cells). The sperm cells reaches the female gametophyte and one fertilizes an egg which produces a zygote. The zygote (embryo) grows into a sporophyte plant which is then encased to form a ready to be scattered seed.

Gymnosperm Sexual and Asexual Reproduction

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Reproduction cycles have very little to do with homeostasis. Reproduction is used to maintain the species population. If something goes wrong in reproduction the it will mess up the homeostasis of the organism but if reproduction goes through normally then the only thing reproduction is effecting is the population. In sexual reproduction, it creates new genetic variation which keeps the population varied.