Dwight D. Eisenhower
His Election and Presidency
The Eisenhower Era
- When? Election of 1952
- What Party? Republican
- Who Was His Vice President? Richard M. Nixon
- Was the Election Close? The election was not very close as Eisenhower had 83.2% of the votes, compared to his opponent Adlai Stevenson who only received 16.8%.
- When? Election of 1956
- What Party? Republican
- Who Was His Vice President? Richard M. NIxon
- Was the Election Close? This was another blowout win by Eisenhower who had 86.1% of the votes opposed to his opponent Adlai Stevenson who received only 13.7%.
The Cold War
What is the Cold War?
- The "war" or period of time from about 1945-1991 in which America (and it's allies) had disagreed with the communist USSR (and it's allies). The war is regarded as the Cold War because unlike "hot wars" (where there is direct warfare between the two sides), during the cold war there was never direct warfare between America and the USSR.
- Big Four: U.S. president Dwight D. Eisenhower, Prime Minister Anthony Eden of Britain, Premier Nikolai A. Bulganin of the Soviet Union, Prime Minister Edgar Faure of France.
- Geneva Summit: A meeting of the "Big Four" in Geneva, Switzerland. The purpose of the meeting was to bring together the world leaders to begin discussions on world peace. Eisenhower proposed his "Open Skies" plan, which was an international ariel monitoring system. Split Vietnam into two countries and founded SEATO.
- Warsaw Pact: A collective defense treaty between the Eight communist states in Eastern and Central Europe during the Cold War. Signed on May, 14 1955. This military alliance went on to form the Collective Security Treaty Organization.
- Eisenhower Doctrine: Speech by President Eisenhower on January 5th, 1957 that enabled a country to request American economic assistance or U.S. military aid if it was being threatened by armed aggression from another state. Eisenhower also singled out anti-communism in this speech.
- USSR launched Sputnik
- National Defense Education Law was signed into law on September 2, 1958 and provided funding for all public education institutions. This was passed because there was a growing belief that United States scientists were falling behind to the Soviet scientists, so by providing education it was hoped that we would surpass the USSR.
- A U-2 American spy plane was shot down and was exposed as the U.S. trying to spy on the USSR and get their plans. The pilot was captured, and later returned in a trade for a Soviet Officer.
- Senator from Wisconsin who rose to infamy by accusing the State Department of employing communists, he conducted high-profile red-baiting hearings that damaged countless careers before he finally over-reached in 1954 when he went after the US Army.
- After that he was censured by Senate and died of alcoholism shortly thereafter.
Desegregation in the South
Brown v. Board of Education
- In 1954 the Supreme Court decision in the Brown v. Board of Education ruled segregation in public schools to be illegal.
- 9 African American students slipped into the school to enroll and a full scale riot erupted.
- Governor Faubus did nothing to stop the violence.
- Finally, the mayor of Little Rock appealed directly to President Eisenhower for help. Eisenhower then placed the Arkansas National Guard under federal control to protect the nine children who were enrolled at the school in Little Rock.
- He also sent 1,000 U.S. paratroopers from the 101st airborne division to help restore order. This had worked and order was restored, although Eisenhower was criticized for overly asserting his power.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
- An African American woman, Rosa Parks, refused to give up her bus seat to a white person and was arrested on December 1, 1955.
- Led to the Supreme Court Browder v. Gale which ruled that the segregation system used on the buses was unconstitutional.
Civil Rights Act of 1957
- Signed in on September 9, 1957 by President Eisenhower.
- Prevent discrimination and prevention of voting rights for blacks.
- Attempt to end Cold War through peace.
- Containment of Communism.
- Continued New Deal policies
- Interstate highways developed.
- War between South and North Vietnam
- Eisenhower offered military support and supplies to the South Vietnamese.
- Eisenhower left the issue to President Kennedy after his term ended, telling him ending communism was the top priority.