ABC Project

By: Sam Ford, letters (A-M) & Zoe Karampelas, letters (N-Z)

Letter A: Apron

CLUE: (1.1) A type of PPE

An Apron, is a piece of material that covers most of your torso. A apron provides protection by keeping unwanted chemicals off of your clothes. Also if there is any spills or splatters nothing can reach direct contact with your clothes or skin. An apron would be used when performing a highly toxic experiment.

Letter B: Blood

CLUE: (1.1) A type of evidence that would be collected at a crime scene

Blood is a type of evidence that would be collected at a crime scene. A Crime Scene Investigator would be the person to collect the blood samples. The blood evidence would be analyzed by how it dropped, from how far did it drop and whose blood it was.



The photo to the right is an example of a High Velocity blood spatter, which is considered major evidence at a crime scene. This a a common blood spatter for gunshot wounds and any other weapons that acquire a large amount of force. The crime scene investigators would analyses this blood spatter by its physical looks. They would know that it is a High Velocity blood spatter by the fine tiny droplets that lay on the surface.

Letter C: Circulatory System

CLUE: (1.3) A body system

The job of the circulatory system is to transport things like water, oxygen and nutrients around the human body system. Some key organs that are involved with this system is the heart, blood vessels and blood. Atherosclerosis is the top disease the Circulatory System can experience. Atherosclerosis is the hardening of blood vessels due to plaque build up.

Letter D: Deoxyribose

CLUE: (1.2) A component of DNA

Deoxyribose is a 5 carbon sugar, that helps at is a monosaccharide with the loss of an oxygen atom. Basically Deoxyribose is a more modified form of Ribose. Deoxyribose is found in the backbone of DNA.

Letter E: Exercise

CLUE: (2.1) A treatment for diabetes

A treatment for diabetes is exercise. Patients with Type 2 diabetes would exercise because it helps you body control the blood sugars, lowers blood pressure and also increase the blood circulation. All of these are positives for people with type 2 diabetes. Patients with type 1 diabetes have a limit to how much exercise they perform. Patients with type 1 diabetes must watch there blood glucose levels before and after exercising.

Letter F: Fries

CLUE: (2.2) A food containing trans fat

I know that fast food french fries contain trans fat. Most fast food places deep fry there food in hydrogenated oil which transfers the trans fats into the foods. Even if the fast food places are not deep frying there food, when the fries are being made, trans fat is added to them. Even fries that are frozen contain trans fats. The substances that the fries are made of includes trans fat. Lastly some of the fries will tell you exactly on the food label like shown on the image to the right, that it contains trans fat.

Letter G: Glucose

CLUE: (2.2) A monomer

Glucose is an example of a monomer. The most common places that Glucose would be found is the pancreas, liver and muscles where it would be releasing stored energy. The reason that glucose is considered a monomer is because if there are multiple them, they can come together and create starch and glycogen.

Letter H: Homicide

CLUE: (1.3) A manner of death

In order for a death to be categorized as a homicide it has to be the killing of someone. There are subcategories under homicide that are murder and manslaughter. The definition of murder is killing someone unlawfully, manslaughter is the killing done in a way known as evil. If the death matches any of these definition than it is under the category of Homicide.

Letter I: Impact stain

CLUE: (1.1) A bloodstain pattern or result

An impact stain would tell investigators that there was force directed to the blood causing it to fly on impact. The way the blood spatter looks physically can tell investigators the force and speed the blood was struck at.

Letter J: James Watson

CLUE: (1.2) A person who discovered something important about DNA

James Watson discovered the double helix, which is the structure of DNA. The double helix discovery was important because it helped receive knowledge about our DNA and the characteristics of it. James watson discovered the double-helix by taking information that was provided from Chargaff's rule and proceeding with many trial and error experiments until he came across the double-helix. Almost as if trying to find the remaining puzzle pieces.

Letter K: Kidney

CLUE: (1.3) A organ

The kidneys are found in the Urinary system. The kidneys main functions are to filter blood, produce hormones, absorb minerals and also produce urine. If the kidneys are not doing there job they they can go into kidney failure. A sign that your kidneys aren't doing their job can be pain when urinating ( urinary infection) or kidney stones. This can be fixed by getting a kidney transplant, which is a donated kidney or surgery on parts that are malfunctioning.

Letter L: Lactose

CLUE: (2.2) A disaccharide

The chemical structure of lactose is C12H22O11. Lactose is also a carbohydrate. Milk, cheese and yogurt are examples of foods that contains Lactose. Lactose can not only provide storage for energy but it can also cause weight gain. From some individuals Lactose can cause an upset stomach and also digestive problems. These individuals are known as lactose intolerant.

Letter M: Mysterious death

CLUE: (1.3) A cause of death that would require an autopsy

If a person is found dead without any obvious causes of death, than an autopsy would be done to find out the cause. Lets say a young man was found dead laying in bed and his appearance looked healthy and no sign of harm is visible. An autopsy would be required to find out if his death was provoked from something like poisoning, choking, overdose or even something internally wrong. Autopsies can also be requested or denied by the family members of those who passed if it does not legally have to be preformed.

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End of Samantha's 13 letters,

Start of Zoe's 13 letters.

Letter N : Nitrogenous Base

A nitrogenous base bonds nucleic acids together. It's an organic molecule that has the chemical properties of a base. There are four nitrogenous bases which are called Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, and Cytosine. The bases Adenine and Thymine pair together and the bases Guanine and Cytosine pair together. A sugar, a phosphate, and one of the nitrogenous bases make a whole nitrogenous base. The sugar and phosphate are found in the backbone. The bases are found in the center.

Letter O: Obesity

Obesity is a risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes. When someone has a unhealthy diet, doesn't exercise enough, and is overweight, their body's blood glucose or sugar level gets too high which causes type 2 diabetes.

Letter P: Protein

Protein is an essential nutrient for the body. It falls under the category of molecules and consists of amino acids. Protein is found in many meats, eggs, poultry, etc. For example, protein is found is chicken breast. The body uses the protein to function and build muscle.

Letter Q: Quadriceps Stretch

I chose this term because I thought it linked to the section of diabetes. This is one of the exercises diabetics could do to help keep fit and help keep the risk of injury low.

Letter R: Riboflavin

Riboflavin is a nutrient and falls under the category of vitamin B. You could find the source of riboflavin in milk, cheese, yeast, etc. The body uses this nutrient for converting food into energy for the body.

Letter S: Stroke

A stroke is a complication of diabetes. Being a diabetic, your arteries can harden and become more narrow which results in the arteries becoming blocked. The arteries becoming blocked could result in a stroke. If you have diabetes, you are twice as likely to have a stroke compared to someone who doesn't have diabetes. Strokes can happen to diabetics at an earlier age than most people.

Letter T: Temperature

In lab 1.1.5, we did an experiment on figuring out how ambient temperature, the temperature in the room or the temperature surrounding an object affects the cooling rate of a body. We also could find out the time of death based on the person's body temperature at the crime scene. Temperature was the dependent variable because we had to make sure it stayed at the same temperature in the room and around the object.

Letter U: Uracil

There are five nucleotides. One of them is called Uracil. This nucleotide pairs with adenine and in found in RNA. Uracil is a common and occurring pyrimidine. The nucleotide can form two hydrogen bonds between itself and adenine.

Letter V: Vision Complications

Having diabetes, you could have vision complications along with it. People with diabetes are 40% more likely to suffer from Glaucoma than people who don't have diabetes. Glaucoma is when pressure builds up in the eye. Another eye complication diabetics have more of a risk for are Cataracts. Diabetics are 60% more likely to develop this complication.

Letter W: Waffles

Waffles are a food that have a high amount of carbs. About 63% of the waffle is high in carbs. The type of carb that is found are the different types of fats. The indicator of the amount of carbs in the waffle could be the batter, sugar, and if not eating plain, the toppings.

Letter X: X-Rays

I chose this term because I thought it linked well with the diabetes unit. Diabetics are more fragile when it comes to breaking a bone, so to see what is wrong with the bone, and x-ray is used to see it. X-rays are helpful because they are able to solve many problems and help doctors treat the broken bones.

Letter Y: Yogurt

Yogurt is a food source with a high amount of protein. 34% of a serving of yogurt is filled with protein. The indicators for protein in the yogurt could be the milk and fruit since those foods and drinks are high in protein.

Letter Z: Zinc

A person can get zinc in their diet by eating seafood, beef, lamb, spinach, chicken, and many more. Zinc is needed in the body because it helps build a healthier immune system, properly synthesizes DNA, promotes healthy growing/child development, and heals wounds.