New York Times

February 9, 1851 By: Eduardo Ayala, and Damian Reichert

Textile Industry

Eli Whitney was born on december 8, 1765, and died on January 8, 1825. He went to Yale College, and Leicester Academy. As he got older he invented the cotton gin. This invention was a key invention to Industrial Revolution. He also came up with the idea of interchangeable parts.

Samuel Slater, I appreciate that samuel slater has brought the plans for the textile mills, I appreciate this because without him, America wouldn’t be the same. We would have factories, or any thing that we have today without him. Although he wasn't the inventor of the textile mill, he was very important to America, and changed the economy for the better.

The textile industry is a period in time of rapid growth in using machines for manufacturing and production that began in the mid-1700s. It employed more people and made more profit than any other item manufacturer. Samuel slater was the person to bring the water frame to America, and started up the textile industry in America. As for Richard Arkwright, he was the inventor of the water frame. The textile industry was one of the few central roles in the Industrial Revolution.

Transportation Revolution

The trading business has reached new heights because we are in the middle of a Transportation Revolution. The Transportation Revolution is a period of rapid growth in the speed and convenience of travel because of new methods of transportation. Mass transportation has increased with the steamboat. This mode of transportation can travel faster than a raft can, it can also go upstream faster than a raft can go downstream, and can carry a greater amount of goods. Although the steamboat was made before the 1800’s, it has become more and more popular with more than 500 steamboats in 1840. Steamboat shipping led to some conflicts, like the Gibbons v. Ogden case. In this case, Aaron Ogden sued Thomas Gibbons for operating a steamboat on a waterway Mr. Ogden “owned”. The Supreme Court favored on Mr. Gibbons side. This case led to the end of monopoly on waterways.

Railroads have played a big role in this revolution as well. Peter Cooper built the first American locomotive, a powered rail vehicle used for pulling trains, called the Tom Thumb. Peter had raced the Tom Thumb up against a horse to prove that his invention was a fast way of travel. Despite losing to the horse, it still proved that his invention was, and that it could transport mass amount of things. Even though trains are sometimes, as they derail sometimes, they reduced travel times. This helped many communities. Railroads have brought communities together, have started businesses, and even become the reason why some cities have been built

Inventions Helping Daily Life

A telegraph is a device that could send information over wires, across great distances, the way to send a message on the telegraph is to use morse code. The telegraph was invented by Samuel Morse, in 1832. His motivation was to earn enough money to raise his three kids. Samuel Morse was born in 1791, and later died in 1872. Telegraphs were soon used for businesses, the government, newspapers, and private citizens. Even the first ever transcontinental line was finished by 1861. By the time that Samuel Morse died in 1872, he was famous across the whole United States.

Steam power is a new and better alternative for power, than water power. Instead of having to build factories by streams, or water. Steam power makes it so factories can be built wherever they want, because they used coal for power, as opposed to water. Some companies even decided to move their factories closer to the cities, towns because it’s closer to their homes, and takes less time to get home. Since they are close to cities, this also decreases the tax prices for shipping. As well as cities becoming a center point for population, people have moved to the cities to get new jobs at the new factories.

New farm equipment has been made, making farming a lot easier. Such as the steel plow which was created in 1837. Another invention is the mechanical reaper, invented by Cyrus McCormick. These inventions have also made modern farming more efficient. New inventions in the home also helps by improving every aspect of daily life. Such as the sewing machine, created by Isaac Singer.

Two Systems

The Lowell System and The Rhode Island System are two types of systems used in the textile industry. The Rhode Island System was a strategy made up by Samuel Slater. His method involved hiring families and dividing factory work into simple tasks. The Lowell System consisted of employing young, unmarried, women from local farms. The system included a loom that could spin thread and weave cloth in the same mill. This system was organized by the New England businessman named Francis Cabot Lowell. Slater’s system hired local families to work in his mills, and provided them with a boardhouse. He also had a company store, and started paying his employees with credits for his store. This allowed him to reinvest his money into his own business. Mr. Lowell hired young, unmarried, women to work in his mills. He gave them actual payments of money, varying from $2-4 a week. The system also provided a boardhouse, but with a payment to stay in the house, which usually cost around $1.50. These women got their money that is owed from the boarding houses, from domestic work.

Although each system had their benefits, the life on mills was and is pretty harsh. The conditions in each system were very poor, causing many accidents on the job and many health problems, such as chronic cough. Because these hazards, people started labor reforms and trade unions. A trade union is a group that have tried to improve pay and working conditions. As an act to try to persuade their employers, they often went on strikes. A strike in this case is a worker who refuses to work until employers meet their needs.
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