9-11 Aftermath

By: Jenny Ginden

Where and when did it occur? and What happened and who was involved?

9/11 occurred on September 11th, 2001 in New York, Virginia, and Washington D.C.

Following 9/11 on November 9, 2006 in Buffalo N.Y. the police became suspicious of a student Adeela Khan and a group of her friends. Adeela had recieved an email about a local Islamic conference that would take place in Toronto. Adeela sent that email to her Muslim friends that attended the same college. An analyst of the New York Police Department was suspicious of the large gathering and sent a file of the invite to commissioner Raymond Kelly. Following the incident with Adeela the police began scanning websites run by Muslim students at 15 colleges such as Yale and the University of Pennsylvania. The NYPD also established "secret programs the NYPD built with help from the CIA to monitor Muslims at the places where they eat, shop and worship."(Hawley,"NYPD monitored Muslim students all over Northeast"). The authority forces violated civil rights based off racial association and previous events . In this event the NYPD oppressed and accused innocent Muslims of crimes based upon their religious affiliation.

How did it occur and why?

This event took place because of the lasting stigma that followed Muslims after 9/11. Many people,including those in authority, had fear and targeted Muslims for crimes."Muslims, who have had to labor under the burden of guilt-by-association with the 9/11 attacks and the rise of Islamist terror in the Middle East..."(Tobin,"FBI statistics Belie Islamophobia Hysteria"). After 9/11 many people established a fearful connotation with Muslims. In Adeela's situation the authorities were scared of a large group of Muslims gathering. The event was for peaceful religious purposes, but the police saw it as an opportunity to suspect the group of a crime."In hate crimes based on religion, Muslims are the second most-victimized group, and every year since 9/11 they've been victimized at rates higher than before the attacks." (Friedrsdorf,"Was there Really a post 9-11 backlash against Muslims?"). Society was not able to make the distinction that not all Muslims are related and not all Muslims are going to commit crimes. They were associated with the 9-11 attacks in a negative way and in return were ostracized based on societal biased. In a study by Pew Research in 2014 they asked a group to rate different religious groups 0-100 degrees on a thermometer. "Fully 41% of the public rates Muslims in the coldest part of the thermometer (33 or below)"(Pew Research religion and public life project, "How American feel about Religious Groups"). This shows that connotation and reputation can still follow a group many years after an event.
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The Crucible Theme and Development of Theme

The Crucible presents the theme that accusations with invalid evidence are often presented during times of hysteria and uncertainty. These accusations can devastate the justice system and society.This theme is established throughout the play as we see numerous accusations of guilty parties based on false evidence presented by a socially trusted group of girls. This theme is established once we see the girls accuse innocent women for the first time. "I saw Goody Bibber with the Devil!" "I saw Goody Booth with the Devil!"(Miller 1049). The girls are in a state of fear and panic and blame others. We see the justice system slowly getting worse as they use the vidence wothout findoing out the accuracy. We see this theme developed by witnessing unjust accusations and the results of those whose oppose the accusations. In act 2 we witness Elizabeth Proctor react to the accusations made upon her by her former servant Abigail Williams. When she finds out, Elizabeth explains "She wants me dead.I knew all week it would come to this."(Miller 1058). This shows that Elizabeth was accused by Abigail with no true or factual evidence. Elizabeth was targeted solely by Abigail so that Abigail could get Elizabeth out of the house. The girls targeted a specific group of people and were able to manipulate society to get everyone else to believe what they wanted them to. We witness the results when John Proctor opposes the established thinking in Salem. We see Danforth reply to John "Do you know, Mr. Proctor that the entire convention of the state,in these trials is that the voice of Heaven is speaking through the children."(Miller 1077). We witness that Danforth is on the side of the girls and is hesitant to take any other views into consideration. Danforth's decision to side with the girls ultimately corrupts the societal justice and causes many innocent people their lives. John thoughts are seen as odd because the girls have already picked a group of victims and made others in town believe that those victims did all of the deeds the girls said they did. Throughout the play we see many people being victimized for crimes they did not commit and we see other try to point that out to society. Many times it is difficult for an individual to prove their innocence once they have an entire society against them. Additionally we see that when an individual tries to stand up to wrongdoings they are often labeled as suspicious and loose their credibility.


During times of fright people are often singled out and punished. In both The Crucible and the 9-11 aftermath event with Adeela Khan and other students, innocent people are convicted and victimized. In The Crucible many respected and noble citizens are accused only because the girls had the power to create a reputation for those accused. They had a reputation of often being middle aged women that had in some way hurt or forced the girls to partake in witchcraft. The girls also put on an act and created false evidence to make their story more believable. They singled out a specific group of people and wrongly accused them with no genuine evidence. In the 9-11 aftermath Adeela and other students were unjustly charged by those who did not have true evidence and went off established characteristics. In the incidents that followed 9-11 the police is equivalent to the girls of Salem. The police was able to establish the stigma and keep a close eye on them without evidence and even invade their civil rights. The girls were able to blame the women of Salem with no evidence. Their actions were not questioned because the police are a generally known for their morals and principled character. The girls used their innocence and youth to defend their actions similar to the police in New York. The girls were a trusted source in the trials which allowed their accusations to be justified. Adeela and other Muslims are counterparts to the accused witches of Salem. Adeela and others were unjustly subject to suspicion because of the mental association the police had with Muslims. They saw them as dangerous and unable to be trusted after 9-11. The same principal applied to the accused witches of Salem. The women were victimized by the trustworthy girls. The erroneous evidence was considered true because of the source it came from. In both cases the victims were unjustly treated and persecuted because of the connotation trusted sources had made society believe.

Works Cited

Friedersdorf, Conor. "Was There Really a Post-9/11 Backlash Against Muslims?" The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 04 May 2012. Web. 06 Dec. 2014.

Tobin, Jonathan S. "FBI Statistics Belie Islamophobia Hysteria « Commentary Magazine." Commentary Magazine RSS. N.p., 20 Nov. 2011. Web. 07 Dec. 2014.

Hawley, Chris. "NYPD Monitored Muslim Students All over Northeast."NYPD-monitored-Muslim-students-all-over-Northeast. N.p., 18 Feb. 2012. Web. 07 Dec. 2014.

"How Americans Feel About Religious Groups." Pew Research Centers Religion Public Life Project RSS. Pew Research, 16 July 2014. Web. 06 Dec. 2014.

Qalander, Mast. "The Hate I Will Never Forget: A Decade After 9/11." Muslim Reverie. N.p., 11 Sept. 2011. Web. 07 Dec. 2014.

Khan, Mussarat. "Journal OfMuslim Mental Health." Attitudes Toward Muslim Americans Post-9/11. N.p., 2012. Web. 06 Dec. 2014.