THE FERTILE CRESCENT

The Middle East's First Cultural Hearth

Boundaries

The Crescent is comprised of the areas around the Nile, Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.

Modern Geography

Today, the Fertile Crescent is part of Syria, Jordan, Iraq and Turkey.

Ancient Geography

In ancient times, the Crescent was populated by a number of civilizations, including Sumer, Babylonia, Assyria, and Phoenicia.

Assyria

Known for its violent tendencies and strong military, Assyria was one of three major civilizations located in the Fertile Crescent.

(Pictured: Ashur, High Deity of Assyria)

Babylonia

Another of the major civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia, Babylonia was the site of ancient Jerusalem, pictured here.

Sumer

The third and final ancient Mesopotamian civilization, Sumer was known for draining marshes for agriculture, establishing trade and industry, and creating a written language.

(Pictured: Ur, a major Sumerian city-state)