African History

Colonization, Apartheid, and 21st Century Issues

Here's a quiz on Slave Trade and European Colonization!



1. What is Imperialism?

2. What countries were involved in the Berlin Conference?

3. Why did the Europeans first show interest in Africa?

4. What is Colonialism?

5. Which country started the Transatlantic Slave Trade?

6. What are the two African Countries that weren't colonized by Europeans?

7. In what year did the Berlin Conference take place?

8. What was the result of the Berlin Conference?

9.Describe the Middle Passage.

10. What was the purpose of Slavery in the New World?

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Timeline of the Apartheid in South Africa

May 1948- Apartheid begins after the 1948 Election

Hoping to get votes from white Africans,the National Party promises to make laws severely restricting black rights if they win the general election. The National Party defeats the United Party and apartheid begins.

June 1952-The African National Congress starts the Defiance Campaign

Volunteers begin a peaceful resistance to Apartheid by breaking the laws that they believe are wrong.

1953-The Bantu Education Act is passed

A law is passed that creates a separate education system for blacks and whites. Blacks are trained to prepare them for a life as part of the working class since it is not expected that they will be allowed to do anything more than that.

December 1956-Nelson Mandela is arrested for treason

Nelson Mandela, an anti-apartheid activist, is arrested with several other people for fighting against apartheid. After serving his 4 years in jail, he is found not guilty.

1959- Separate homelands are created for black groups

The government passes new laws to create separate homelands, called Bantustans, for the major black groups in the country. The government does this to stop blacks from being citizens of South Africa.

March 21, 1960-69 people are killed in Sharpeville Massacre

Apartheid requires blacks to carry passbooks, which contain personal information such as name, date of birth, and photos. When protesters show up at the Sharpeville police station without their passbooks, a riot breaks out and police kill 69 people.]\

August 5, 1962-Nelson Mandela is arrested for Treason for the second time

He is arrested for his role in bombing government targets and sentenced to life in prison.

November 11, 1965-Rhodesia illegally gains independence from Great Britain

Prime Minister Ian Smith announces that Rhodesia has broken away from Great Britain and that whites will control the government. Great Britain had been prepared to only grant independence if blacks were given some of the power in government.

November 1974-The United Nations suspends South Africa

Due to apartheid, South Africa is removed from the United Nations. South Africa is not allowed back into the United Nations until apartheid ends in 1994.

1990-F.W. De Klerk ends the Apartheid

When F.W. De Klerk was elected President, he ended the Apartheid.

May 10, 1994- Nelson Mandela is elected President

In the country's first election that allowed both whites and blacks to vote, Nelson Mandela is elected president of South Africa. He is the first black president in the history of South Africa.

21st Century Issues Graph/Chart

Nigeria has the highest birth rate out of the three, as do they have the highest death, and poverty rate, but they have the lowest rate of diseases. Kenya comes in second for birth rate, diseases, and Poverty rate. They come in third for death rate. Finally, South Africa comes in first place for diseases, (bad for them) third place for birth rate, and poverty rate, and lastly second place for death rates.
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Independence Movements of Kenya, Nigeria, and South Africa


On December 12, 1963, Kenya gained their independence over Great Britain. The road to independence began in the 1950's with the Mau Mau Rebellion. The Mau Mau movement was a militant African nationalist group that opposed British Colonial rule. Mau Mau members carried out violent attacks against colonial leaders and white settlers. In 1952, the colonial government declared a state of emergency and arrested many Kenyan independence leaders including moderates who had little or no connection to Mau Ma, like Jomo Kenyatta, President of Kenya Africa Union. Between 1952 and 1956, the British defeated the Mau Mau through a brutal campaign of Military action and widespread detention of the Kikuyu. However, the Mau Mau Rebellion also persuaded the British that social, political and agrarian reforms were necessary. In 1957, the British allowed for the first direct elections of native leaders to the Legislative Council and by 1960, Africans were a majority in the council. Over the next several years, the British worked with African and white settler leaders to plan the country’s transition to independence. These conferences produced a constitution in 1963 that provided for the creation of a bicameral legislature with elections held that May. The Kenya African National Union won majorities in both houses and selected its leader, Kenyatta, who had been released from prison in 1961, to be the first prime minister of the new nation.


There were many different ethnic group in the region that is now called Nigeria. At the Berlin Conference, Britain was given control of the region, which was made into two regions.Many of the ethnic groups didn't want to be a part of that country. They believed that the only way for Nigerians to have rights was to be free of European Rule.