By: Cameron Pack
On January 1, 1863, this presidential proclamation was issued. It proclaimed the freedom of slaves in the 10 states that were still in rebellion. It also ordered that suitable persons among those freed could be enrolled into the paid service of the United States' forces. It basically made the eradication of slavery an explicit goal of the war. The president that issued this proclamation and was a key figure involved in the event was Abraham Lincoln. He would eventually be one of the main reasons for the outlaw of slavery.
Dred Scott case
The Dred Scott case was a Supreme Court case which held that African Americans, whether enslaved or free, could not be American citizens and therefore had no standing to sue in federal court. Dred Scott, an enslaved African American man who had been taken by his owners to free states and territories, attempted to sue for his freedom. In a 7–2 decision written by Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, the Court denied Scott's request. For only the second time in its history the Supreme Court ruled an Act of Congress to be unconstitutional. This would cause many problems and would spark many anti-slavery elements in the north, especially Republicans. Frederick Douglas would be a massive leader in anti-slavery movements which would be started the spark from this case.
Kansas Nebraska Act
This act created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opening new lands for settlement. It also has the effect of repealing the Missouri Compromise. A big problem was when popular sovereignty was written into the proposal so that voters of the movement would decide whether slavery would be allowed or not. This would lead to "Bleeding Kansas." This act was designed by Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, he would be a key figure involved in this event.
The Battle of Gettysburg was fought in Pennsylvania in 1863. The battle was fought by Union and Confederate soldiers, it also involved the largest number of casualties of the entire war. This part of the war is often described as the "turning point" of the war. Gen. Robert E. Lee was a key figure in this battle. His attempts to invade the North would be ended because if this battle.