Clauses of Contrast

They are used to express a contrast.

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They are introduced with the following words of phrases

but, although, even though and though, despite and in spite of, however, nevertheless, while and whereas, yet, still and on the other hand

When used in writing, it's very important that you pay attention to the punctuation

Although, Even though, Though

"Even though" is more emphatic than "Although". "Though" is informal and can be used at the end of the sentence. Look at the examples and pay attention to the punctuation.

  • Although /Even though/Though it was winter, it was warm.
  • It was warm although /even though/though it was winter. (no comma)
  • It was winter. It was warm, though.

But (remember punctuation)

They didn't have to work, but they wanted to.
  1. Followed by noun

  • Despite the rain, he went out
  • In spite of the rain, he went out

2. Followed by an -ing form

  • Despite winning, he was sad
  • In spite of winning, he was sad

3. Followed by a sentence

  • Despite the fact that it was raining, he went out
  • In spite of the fact that it was raining, he went out

If the clause of contrast comes second in the sentence, there's no comma.

Ex: He was sad despite winning.

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However and Nevertheless

A comma is always used after "however" and "nevertheless".

He had good English.Nevertheless/However, I couldn't understand him.
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While and Whereas

She has fair hair , while/whereas her brother has dark hair.
To read more about while and whereas, click here

Yet (formal) and Still (pay attention to the punctuation)

  • The fire was widespread, yet no property was damaged.
  • My car is old. Still, it is in very good condition.

On the other hand

Cars aren't environmentally friendly.

On the other hand, bicycles are.

Bicycles, on the other hand, are.

Source: Grammarway 4

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