Ukraine civil war

The Euromaidan

Introduction

Through this work we are going to explain you the geopolitics of the country, the economy and the civil war of Ukraine; taking in account these datas why are going to give you some posible solution.

Geographic datas (Erkki Zeberio)

The political map

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Geography map and demographic

Regarding to the main geopolitical indicators, Ukraine has a surface more than 600,000 km2, the largest country in Europe after Russia. The population is about 45 million, resulting in a density of 77 inhabitants per km2.


Its territory consists of plains (steppes and 6 plateaus) high fertility (53.8% of the land is arable) with some foothills to the west (the Carpathians) and in the Crimea.


Ukraine is divided into two parts: one part of which is south Ukraine and north that are the Russians.

Raw materials of Ukraine

Ukraine is rich in mineral deposits, including iron ore (of which it once produced 50 percent of the entire Soviet output), manganese ore (of which it produced 40 percent of world output during the Soviet era), mercury, titanium, and nickel.

Ukraine has a major ferrous metal industry, producing cast iron, steel and pipes. Among its economy leading companies in that field are Metinvest, Kryvorizhstal, AzovStal, Ilyich Steel & Iron Works, and others. As of 2012, Ukraine is the world'stenth largest steel producer (according to World Steel Association).

The map of the railways

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Economic datas (Mikel Mendizabal)

The Per capita of Ukraine

Ferrous metals and nonferrous metals, fuel and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery and transport equipment, food product this some of producst that ukraine export. Ukraine’s economic freedom score is 46.9, making its economy the 162nd freest in the 2015 Index. Its score is 2.4 points lower than last year. Ukraine has registered the second largest score decline of any country graded in the 2015 Index

Export and import in 2014

In 2014 Ukrainian mining companies exported 40894.26 thousand tons of iron ore raw materials. According to the customs statistics, these exports decreased by 11.1%, to $3325.04 billion. The main export destinations in 2014 were China (47.36%), Poland (10.93%) and the Czech Republic (10.78%). In 2014 Ukraine imported 3211.99 thousand tons of iron ore raw materials worth $246.15 million


-Export good:
-Main export partners
- Russia 24.2%
- Turkey 6%...

-Egypt 4.4%
-China 4.3% (2013 est.)[2]

-Imports Decrease $87.21 billion (2013 est.)

-Import goods
-energy (mainly natural gas),[7] machinery and equipment, chemicals
-Main import partners
-Russia 29.6%
-China 9.8%
-Germany 8.4%
-Poland 6.9%
-Belarus 5.3% (2013 est.)[2]
-Gross external debt
-Increase $38.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)


Ukraine is relatively rich in natural resources, particularly in mineral deposits . Although oil and natural gas reserves in the country are largely exhausted

Multinationals

Multinational corporations have had a very positive impact on the continuing development of a market economy in Ukraine, as they by and large have been the first foreign investors to put down roots in the country



Indusries:


In Ukraine covering about 20 major industries, namely power generating, fuel, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, chemical and petrochemical and gas, machine-building and metal-working, forest, wood-working and wood pulp and paper, construction materials, light, food and others.


GPD Per capita

The Per capita of ukraine in a year is about $8,240 dollar, exports decreased $71.14 billion in total in a year, ferrous metals and nonferrous metals, fuel and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery and transport equipment, food product this some of products that Ukraine export. Ukraine’s economic freedom score is 46.9, making its economy the 162nd freest in the 2015 Index. Its score is 2.4 points lower than last year. Ukraine has registered the second largest score decline of any country graded in the 2015 Index.

Infrastructure

-The railway plays the role of connecting all major urban areas .

-Zaporizhia nuclear power plant is the largest nuclear power plant in Europe and the third world the main of this infrastructure is to create energy for all the country.

-Electricity the main of this infrastructure is to spread all the population energie.

-Food multinationals they export full of food to all the countries is one of bigest, because the food is necessary.

HDI of Ukraine

The HDI index of ukraine is in the number 43 in all the world.


History of Ukraine before the conflict (Manu Miangolarra)

Ukraine was the center of the first eastern Slavic state, Kyivan Rus, which during the 10th and 11th centuries was the largest and most powerful state in Europe. Weakened by internecine quarrels and Mongol invasions, Kyivan Rus was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and eventually into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The cultural and religious legacy of Kyivan Rus laid the foundation for Ukrainian nationalism through subsequent centuries. A new Ukrainian state, the Cossack Hetmanate, was established during the mid-17th century after an uprising against the Poles. Despite continuous Muscovite pressure, the Hetmanate managed to remain autonomous for well over 100 years. During the latter part of the 18th century, most Ukrainian ethnographic territory was absorbed by the Russian Empire. Following the collapse of czarist Russia in 1917, Ukraine was able to achieve a short-lived period of independence (1917-20), but was reconquered and forced to endure a brutal Soviet rule that engineered two forced famines (1921-22 and 1932-33) in which over 8 million died. In World War II, German and Soviet armies were responsible for some 7 to 8 million more deaths. Although final independence for Ukraine was achieved in 1991 with the dissolution of the USSR, democracy and prosperity remained elusive as the legacy of state control and endemic corruption stalled efforts at economic reform, privatization, and civil liberties. A peaceful mass protest "Orange Revolution" in the closing months of 2004 forced the authorities to overturn a rigged presidential election and to allow a new internationally monitored vote that swept into power a reformist slate under Viktor Yushchenko. Subsequent internal squabbles in the Yushchenko camp allowed his rival Viktor Yanukovych to stage a comeback in parliamentary elections and become prime minister in August of 2006. An early legislative election, brought on by a political crisis in the spring of 2007, saw Yuliya Tymoshenco, as head of an "Orange" coalition, installed as a new prime minister in December 2007. Viktor Yanukvych was elected president in a February 2010 run-off election that observers assessed as meeting most international standards. The following month, the Rada approved a vote of no-confidence prompting Yuliya TYMOSHENKO to resign from her post as prime minister.

Explaining the conflict (Politic and economic)

Origin

Protests originally erupted in November 2013 after President Viktor Yanukovych chose not to sign a political association and free trade agreement with the European Union at the summit of the Eastern Partnership at Vilnius, choosing closer ties with Russia instead.

Russia and EU proposals and situation after the conflict

Prime Minister Mykola Azarov had asked for 20 € billion in loans and aid The EU was willing to offer 610 € million in loans, however Russia was willing to offer $15 billion in loans. Russia also offered Ukraine cheaper gas prices. In addition to the money, the EU required major changes to the regulations and laws in Ukraine. Russia, however, did not. Russia also applied economic pressures on Ukraine and launched a propaganda campaign against the EU-Ukraine deal Yanukovych was widely disliked in Ukraine's west, but had some support in his native Russian-speaking east, as well as the south. The demostrations were initially peaceful but eventually became violent in January 2014 after parliament, dominated by Yanukovych's supporters, passed laws intended to repress the protest. Russia, hoping to build an alliance of ex-Soviet states, has made extensive efforts to derail Ukraine's pact with the European Union with a mixture of trade sanctions and promises. The European Union and the United States urged Yanukovych to negotiate a peaceful end to the conflict and said they would sanction government officials if they were found responsible for violence.

First demostrations

In the lead up to the February riots, an amnesty agreement was made with protesters where in they would be granted release from charges in exchange for active protesters leaving occupied buildings. Protesters vacated all occupied Regional State Administration buildings, and activists in Kiev left the Hrushevskoho Street standoff; Kiev City Hall was also released back to government control on 16 February. All protesters, previously jailed for taking part in protests were scheduled to be released after 17 February.

First dealings between Russia and Ukraine

The fact that Yanukovych was perceived as trying to establish closer ties with Russia played a important role in the protests. Yanukovych accepted bail-out money, $2 billion out of a $15 billion package, from Russia and this was interpreted as a sign that he would seek close ties with Putin. Russian authorities had been pressuring the Ukrainian administration to take decisive action to crush protests; and it has been noted that the assault on Euromaidan protesters by police was ordered hours after the $2 billion from Russia was transferred. Some ministers from across Europe blamed Russia for exacerbating the violence. During a 20 February interview, the retired Colonel of the Main Intelligence Directorate of Russia (GRU) Aleksandr Musienko stated that the conflict could only be solved by means of force, and that Ukraine had proven it could not exist as an independent sovereign state. According to government documents released by former deputy interior minister Hennadiy Moskal, Russian officials served as advisers in how to carry out the operations against protesters. Codenamed "Wave" and "Boomerang," the operations aimed to disperse crowds with the use of snipers and capture the protesters' headquarters in the House of Trade Unions; prior to police defections, the plans included the deployment of 22,000 combined security troops in the city. According to the documents, the former first deputy of the Russian GRU stayed at the Kyiv Hotel and played a major role in the preparations, and was paid by the Security Services of Ukraine. According to Reuters, the authenticity of the documents could not be confirmed. Interior Minister Arseniy Avakov has stated that the conflict was provoked by a 'non-Ukrainian' third party, and that an investigation was ongoing.

Dead's in revolts

Following concessions on 21 February after a failed crackdown which left up to 100 killed, Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev suggested Mr. Yanukovych needed to stop behaving like a "doormat," and that further loan tranches would be withheld. Russian political advisor Sergey Markov then ensured "Russia will do everything allowable by law to stop (the opposition) from coming to power."On 24 February, following the events of the revolution, Russia's Foreign Ministry issued a statement urging Ukrainians to "crack down on the extremists who are trying to get established in power," and Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev refused to recognise the provisional government as legitimate.

The Civil war (Timeline)

18 February (initial clashes)

Trucks which had been carrying troops are burned on crossroads in Kiev city's center on 18 February.


Protesters throwing bricks and Molotov cocktails at police who are behind the burning barricade

The night before the clashes, Right Sector issued an announcement, calling for all members to ready themselves for a "peace offensive" on 18 February. The Maidan People's Union also called on all concerned citizens to take place in the "peace offensive," of which student unions had committed to joining as well.

19 February

The Kiev Metro was closed and main roads blocked by police. Bigger stores and malls on Khreshchatyk were closed; but according to an Euronews correspondent "Life away from the barricades is business as usual".Banks nearby the conflict zone suspended the work of offices again.


The Security Service of Ukraine (SBU) launched an "anti-terrorist" operation, while the intelligence services began investigating unnamed politicians over what was described as an illegal attempt to seize power.

20 February

February 20 there were many riots in towns near Kiev, there were three soldiers killed and nine wounded. The railway was closed because they wanted to avoid deportation.

21 February

This day it was signed the agreement resolving the political crisis in Ukraine; The deal agreed to: a restoration of the Constitution as it was between 2004 and 2010; constitutional reform to be completed by September; early presidential elections no later than December 2014; an investigation into the violence conducted under joint monitoring of the authorities, opposition, and the Council of Europe; a veto on imposing a state of emergency; amnesty for protesters arrested since 17 February; surrendering of public buildings occupied by protesters; the forfeiture of illegal weapons; "new electoral laws" to be passed and the formation of a new Central Election Commission. The three EU foreign ministers signed the document as witnesses; Russian mediator Vladimir Lukin did not sign the deal, as he had no mandate to sign an agreement on the crisis.


By late afternoon, hundreds of riot police officers guarding the presidential compound and nearby government buildings had vanished.

Nowadays situation

Today attacks in Ukraine continues, for example on June 3 there was a major attack by pro-Russian militias, who have launched an offensive on the village of Marinka, 15 kilometers from Donetsk, with the participation of a thousand men, a dozen tanks and artillery, according to the General Staff of the Ukrainian army.


So you can see that the attacks continue five months after the first manifestation.

External helps

A support package of 11 billon € and support of the comprehensive reform process underway in Ukraine.

Possible solution

The first would be to enter into a new government of national concentration with the " Political parts of Regions", to be directed to the country with a program of consensus until the presidential elections of 2015.


On the other hand the government should distance themselves from extreme violence.


Russia should not put pressure on Ukraine to attract it to the Customs Union, firstly because that would increase the tensions in this country.


Finally, the European Union must significantly alter their policies to tackle the crisis and mend relations with Russia.


Furthermore, they should avoid intervening in the internal political process of Ukraine against the legitimate and democratically constituted power, which can only be replaced at the ballot box and not with the weapons.