H1N1

Swine Flu

Overview

H1N1 is a new virus first detected in humans in 2009. It spread quickly around the world. During the 2010-2010 flu season, the H1N1 virus has not caused widespread infections. A separate vaccine has not been needed, though the H1N1 virus is still one of the three viruses included in the regular (seasonal) vaccine.

How it is transmitted

The H1N1 flu virus is made up of genes from flu viruses that normally cause influenza in pigs, birds, and humans. H1N1 flu virus is contagious. Person-to-person transmission of H1N1 flu virus occurs, and the virus is easily spread among people.

signs and symptoms

  • Fever (but not always)
  • Cough.
  • Sore throat.
  • Runny or stuffy nose.
  • Watery, red eyes.
  • Body aches.
  • Headache.
  • Fatigue.

Diagnosis

Swine flu is presumptively diagnosed clinically by the patient's history of association with people known to have the disease and their symptoms listed above. Usually, a quick test (for example, nasopharyngeal swab sample) is done
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Treatment

Treatment is largely supportive and consists of bedrest, increased fluid consumption, cough suppressants, and antipyretics and analgesics (eg, acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) for fever and myalgias. Severe cases may require intravenous hydration and other supportive measures. Antiviral agents may also be considered for treatment or prophylaxis


Patients should be encouraged to stay home if they become ill, to avoid close contact with people who are sick, to wash their hands often, and to avoid touching their eyes, nose, and mouth.


(viral can not be treated by antibiotics)

Prevention

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends flu vaccination for all people older than 6 months of age. An H1N1 virus is one component of the seasonal flu shot for 2014-15.


The vaccine will be available as an injection or a nasal spray.

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