English naturalist, geologist, and most importantly evolution expert Charles Darwin had four different mottos or ideas that he went by (relating to natural selection). He believed that Natural Selection is an outcome of these four postulates:

Individuals within a species are variable

This postulate states that In a group of organisms of a certain species, not all organisms will be exactly the same. Each organism will most likely (according to Darwin's theories) have its unique characteristics and qualities. For example, scientists conducted research These variabilities connect to Darwin's second postulate.

Some of these variations are passed along to offspring

This postulate states that the variations that organisms are transferred to the offspring of that organism. Scientists researched the degree to which the variability was due to genetic effects. They discovered that there was much more gene similarity between birds and their parents than birds who were not related. Birds with deep beaks tend to have offspring with deep beaks.

In every generation more offspring are produced that have the capability of surviving

Only those with certain characteristics can survive in some conditions. Since only those who have those survive, they keep reproducing offspring with those same survival characteristics. For example, the Grants (which are a type of bird) suffered a severe drought. About 80% of the Grants disappeared, and only those with certain beaks survived because they had the capability of reaching a specific seed that was available during the drought.

Survival and reproduction are not random; organisms with favorable variation survive and continue reproducing

It is not random, it depends on the characteristics of the organisms if they will survive or not. It's a matter of natural selection, those who cant obtain food, shelter, or any other of the things that they need will being to die and wipe out. Those who can survive will keep on reproducing and creating a stronger species.

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Bibliography (APA)

Bennet, Anthony. Natural Selection. (n.d.). Retrieved April 04, 2016, from http://faculty.evansville.edu/de3/b32003/lecture summaries/selection.pdf

Evolution and Natural Selection. (2010, October 10). Retrieved April 06, 2016, from http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange1/current/lectures/selection/selection.html

Futuyma, D. (2004, December). Natural Selection: How Evolution Works. Retrieved April 06, 2016, from http://www.actionbioscience.org/evolution/futuyma.html

O´Neil, D. (2013). Early Theories of Evolution: Darwin and Natural Selection. Retrieved April 06, 2016, from http://anthro.palomar.edu/evolve/evolve_2.htm

TFG for Evolution Using Bivalves. (n.d.). Retrieved April 06, 2016, from http://bivalves.teacherfriendlyguide.org/index.php?option=com_content