Caddo Tribe

Coastal Plains Region


As their main source of food, the Caddo cleared large areas of pine trees and planted crops- corn, beans, and squash. Sometimes, they would hunt deer, turkey, rabbits, squirrels and other animals. Wild plants like acorns, blackberries, fruits, and roots were gathered by the women.

Grass Huts

The Caddo built huts that were tall cone shaped and covered with grass. First they made a wood frame and then they would cover it. They filled their huts with beds and chairs. Buffalo skins with hair were used as blankets in winter. In summer, the hut stayed cool because the floor was like a wooden screen that let air pass through. Lots of huts had several families living in them.
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Weapons and Tools


The Caddoes religious ceremonies followed the seasons and natural events throughout the year. They believed that their god above heard their daily prayers. A member of the tribe, "xinesi" communicated with their god through meditation and kept a fire burning in a fire temple. They also had medicine men that had healing ceremonies. This is a picture of John Wilson, a Caddo medicine man and religious leader.

Organization of Leadership

The Caddo tribe traced their descendants through the maternal line (matrilineality). Marriage was usually between different clans. They had a few leaders, the "xinesi" was their spirtual leader, the "caddi" made political decisions, and the "canahas" were the village elders.

Where are they now?

Caddo now live in Anadarko, Oklahoma and Binger, Oklahoma. They work, go to school, and watch TV like other Americans. Unlike other Americans, they go to tribal activities where they sing and dance like traditional Caddoes.

Unique Facts

Belle Lane

7th Period
Texas History
Colleyville Middle School