TEMPERATE FOREST BIOME
Types and How They Adapt
1. Forest Floor
- Small plants like: ferns, lichen, wildflowers, and moss.
2. Middle Level
- Shrubs and Hardwood trees: oak, birch, sweet gum, maple, magnolia, and beech.
- Spruce, fir, and pine.
Trees adapt using their leaves
- In Spring, trees grow light leaves that can easily capture sunlight, making photosynthesis occur faster.
- In Fall, trees stop the flow of water to their leaves by sealing the area between the stem of a leaf and the trunk. When this occurs, the leaves start to die since they are lacking sunlight and water, which leads to a lack of chlorophyll. Since there is no chlorophyll, the leaves start changing to the reds, yellows, and oranges.
- In Winter, the leaves have turned brown and died, falling to the ground, and the tree is now dormant.
Types and How They Adapt
- Insects, salamanders, spiders, turtles, frogs, and slugs
- Birds: hawks, cardinals, woodpeckers, and snowy owls
- Mammals: raccoons, white-tailed deer, porcupines, red foxes, and opossums
Animals adapt 3 different ways
1. Food storage
- Squirrels, chipmunks, and jays have adapted to store food in the winter.
- The cool weather keeps the food from decomposing in the hollow trees
- Birds have adapted to migrate towards warmer places when winter comes to their habitat.
- Mammals have adapted to hibernation in the winter so that they can survive the cold.
- They go into a state of sleep, they do not wake up til winter is over, and they have no need to eat or drink when they are hibernating.
How Humans Impacted Temperate Forests
- Throughout Europe and America, only 1% of temperate forests have been preserved. The rest have been logged, grazed, undergone conversion into farmland, and had controlled burns.
- When humans affect the forests, they hurt the composition, structure, and diversity of the forest.
- During the industrial revolution in America, temperate biomes were severely hurt when Americans used the trees for fuels and materials.
- Now, the forests are closer to industrialized land, so they are more susceptible to air pollution.
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