1350- 1533 CE


The Incan Empire located on the western coast of South America had the largest territory in its empire. The Inca's were clans all put together that created the Andean Civilization in the Andes in Peru. The Incan Empire was considered a bureaucracy because they had a rulers of the empire that was never officially elected. The rulers in the empire were all mummified after they died, the names of those Inca rulers still resonate with power and ambition centuries after their demise: Viracocha Inca , Huascar Inca, and Pachacutec Inca Yupanqui. The government was all centered around the capital city of Cuzco (11,000ft above sea level). The empire was divided into four suyus ("regions" in Quechua), whose corners met at the capital, Cusco, modern day Peru.


The Incans' worshipped multiple gods (Polytheistic): sun gods and rain gods are just two examples of gods that they worshiped. The Incas believed that the sun god was an extremely powerful god which they worshipped a lot. They built the Temple of the Sun or Qurikancha, which was the most important temple in the Inca Empire. It was said that at one point in time the floors and walls were lined with gold. They sacrificed children to the gods whenever they did a wrong doing.


The Incan economy was based on trade and services. This was due to the fact that they had no form of currency. For taxes the Incas used their crops. They sent some of there crops to the king. Everyone worked no matter what because they built roads through out their civilization. To the Incas the most valuable traded object was cloth. Cloth was very hard to produce; only nobles were allowed to use prime cloth. The other trade objects that the Incas used were pots, ropes, lamas, gold and silver.

Social Hierarchy:

In the social hierarchy of the Incan society there are 5 different social groupings. At the top of the Incan society is the Emperor and his wife; next come the priesthood;then we have the nobles and army commanders;then the merchants and artisans; and lastly at the bottom of the pyramid are the Farmers, Herders, Slaves.


The Incan Empire had no writing system, tools, or wheels invented during their time period. The Incan Empire created a system called quipu or quipo. Quipu is the closest thing to a writing system that they have in their society. Quipu is a bunch of ropes that have different colors, lengths, and knots that create words or phrases to communicate.


Inca art and pottery was as technically advanced as some of the Inca masonry used in their buildings; an example of which being Machu Picchu, however none of the Inca art depicts their building skills which is surprising considering how advanced it was.Around Cuzco the pottery was superb and advanced on what their predecessors created before them.

Primary Source

This is pottery from the Chimu- Inca ceramic from the late horizon period. Precious metals such as gold, silver, copper, and bronze were extremely important to the the Incas. They would create many different designs that usually have something to do with their gods.