Tundra

By: Gabriella Fountain

Vitals of Biome

Plants

  • Artic moss
  • Artic willow
  • Bearberry
  • Caribou Moss
  • Diamond-leaf Willow
  • Labrador Tea
  • Tufted Saxifrage

Animals

  • Arctic Fox
  • Caribou
  • Ermine
  • Grizzly Bear
  • Harlequin Duck
  • Musk Ox
  • Polar Bear
  • Snowy Owl

Scenery

  • Barren
  • Ground is permanently frozen
  • No trees can grow
  • Ground is sometimes rocky

Location of Tundra

  • 55° to 70° North
  • Located in the Northern Hemishpere
  • Small tundras are in the Antarticain the southern hemisphere

Abiotic Factors


  • Winter temp:-94° F (-70° C)
  • Summer temp:37° to 60°F (3° to 16°C)
  • Poor soil
  • Little to no rainfall


Climate of Biome

Average Temps and Average Rainfall

Average Temp: -70°F (-56°C)


Average Rainfall:150 to 250 mm of rain per year


Seasons

Summer:
  • The sun is present for 24 hours a day
  • The sun warms up the tundra only about 3°C to 12°C
Winter:
  • Several weeks where the sun never rises
  • The temperature drops to a very cold temperture




Plant Life

Characteristics

  • About 1,700 species of plants
  • Trees are not able to grow
  • Small plants
  • Plants grow close together and close to the ground


Arctic Willow

  • Dwarf shrub
  • Eaten by mostly caribou, musk oxen, arctic hares
  • Known as the "tongue plant" because of the shape of the leaves


Pasque Flower

  • Covered in silk-like hairs that provide insulation
  • Eaten by sheep and goats


Bearberry

  • Low-growing
  • Leathery leaves and silk-like hairs provide protection from cold and wind
  • Named "bearberry" because bears eat the red berries


Arctic Poppy

  • About 10-15 cm tall
  • One flower per stem
  • Heads of flowers follow sun
  • Cup-shaped petals
  • Petals absorb solar energy


Cottongrass

  • Fluffy, white tufts
  • Great food source for migrating geese and caribou


Animals

Characteristics

  • Short ears
  • Short, round body
  • Thick coat of fur


Polar Bear

  • Appear to have a white coat (hairs are translucent and clear)
  • Coat and skin absorb sunlight and keep in heat
  • Short ears to minimize heat loss


Caribou

  • Use large hooves to dig in the ground for food
  • Use hooves to swim in water
  • Hooves help stay on ice or rock


Arctic Hare

  • Fur changes from all white in the winter to blue-gray/gray-brown in summer
  • Large hind feet help move fast in the snow
  • Large, sharp claws help dig in the ground for food


Snowy Owl

  • White with dark spots
  • Yellow eyes that are fixed in their eye sockets
  • Can move head about 270 degrees in either direction
  • Thick coat of feathers
  • Their feet have large talons that hep them dig and cling to ice and rock


Musk Oxen

  • Outer coat of long, brown hairs
  • Inner coat (Qiviut) made of wool
  • Long, sharp horns
  • Glands that make a musky odor (how the ox got its name)


Food Web of Tundra

Big image

Coorperation

  1. Polar bears let the Arctic foxes eat their scraps
  2. Caribou eat the grass and fertilize it


Competition

  1. When food is hard to find, a musk ox and caribou might have some competition trying to get something to eat.
  2. Two polar bears might want the same thing to eat but only one will get it and won't let the other bear eat.


Predator/Prey Relationships

  1. Wolf and caribou:A wolf is the predator. The caribou eats plants and the wolf eats the caribou to get the energy from the plant that was eaten by the caribou.
  2. Lemmings and Snowy owls: The mice eat plants and insects. The owls eat the mice and gain the energy from both the mice and the plants.
  3. Polar bears and Arctic Fox: The polar bears eat the owls which get energ from the mice which get energy from the plants and insects. Then, the fox eats the polar bear and gets energy from the bear, owl, mice, and plants and insects.
  4. Caribou and Arctic Willow: The arctic willow gets energy from the sun through photosynthesis. When the caribou eats the arctic willow, energy from the plant is transferred to the caribou.


Fun Facts

  • One of the most unique biomes
  • Mostly like the desert biome
  • Second most deadly biome in the world
  • "Tundra" means "treeless plain"
  • Short growing season


Ecological Concerns

Threats

  • Caribou are being killed for their antlers
  • Musk oxen are being killed for their skin and fur
  • Global warming
  • About one-third of the world's soil-bound carbon is permafrost


Endangered Species


  1. Polar bears
  2. Arctic fox
  3. Wood Bison
  4. Arctic Peregrine Falcon
  5. Eskimo Curlew



Global Importance

  • We need the tundra because it creates biodiversity. Biodiversity is what makes Earth what it is.
  • A huge amount of methane is locked up in the tundra and permafrost regions of Earth.