Exploring Geography

Section 1

The Elements of Geography

Geography is a greek word meaning “earth description”. Geographers study geography and learn about earth. They Find:

  • · The world in spatial terms
  • · Places and regions
  • · Physical systems
  • · Environment and uses of geography

The World In Spacial Terms

Spatial relations are the links that places and people have with one another because of their locations. Location is a reference point.

Absolute Location-

The exact a place is found on the globe. To determine absolute location geographers use:

  • · Equator
  • · North and South poles
  • · Prime Meridian

Absolute location also uses HEMISPHERES and latitude and longitude lines that make a GRID SYSTEM.

Relative Location-

Relative location is how most people locate a place on earth. And, it is relating a place with a place near by or related to it.

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Places and Regions

--a place is a particular space with physical and human meaning.

--Geographers often group places into regions, or areas united by specific factors.

--They identify 3 different types of regions: formal, functional, and perceptual.

--A region might have human factors that help define it.

(a formal region is defined by a common characteristic,such as a product produced there.)

(a functional region is a central place and the surrounding liked to it.For example,by a highway system.)

(a perceptual region is defined by popular feelings and images rather than by objective data.For example,the term “heartland” refers to a central area in which traditional values are believed to be predominate.)

Physical systems

ecosystems are a community of plants and animals that depend on one another and their surroundings for their survival.

human systems

a recurring theme in geography is the ongoing movement of people, goods, and ideas.

environment and society

The study of the interrelationship between people and their physical environment.

The uses of geography

How physical features an living things developed in the past.Governments, business, and individuals use geographic info in planning and decision making.