Sigmund Freud


Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist best known for developing the theories and techniques of psychoanalysis. He was born in Freiburg on May 6, 1856. Freud developed psychoanalysis, a method through which an analyst unpacks unconscious conflicts based on the free associations, dreams, and fantasies of the patient.

Defense mechanism:

Reaction form- reduces anxiety by taken up the opposite feeling, impulse, or behavior. An example would be treating someone you strongly dislike in an excessively friendly manner in order to hide your true feelings.

Sublimation- a defense mechanism that allows us to act out unacceptable impulses by converting these behaviors into a more acceptable form. An example would be a person experiencing extreme anger might take up kick-boxing as a means of venting frustration.

Each stage of psychosexual development:

Oral stage- primary source of interaction occurs through the mouth, so the rooting and sucking reflex is especially important.

Anal stage- controlling bladder and and bowel movements.

Phallic stage- primary focus of libido is on the genitals. Children also start to realize the difference between men and women.

Latent stage- development of the ego and superego contribute to this period of calm.

Genital stage- the individual develops a strong sexual interest in the opposite sex.

Id, Ego, and Superego:

The Id is the primitive and instinctive component of personality. The Id engages in primary process thinking, which is primitive illogical, irrational, and fantasy oriented. The Ego develops in order to meditate between the unrealistic id and the external real world. Like the Id, the Ego seeks pleasure and avoids pain but unlike the id the ego is concerned with devising a realistic strategy to obtain pleasure. The superego incorporates the values and morals of society which are learned from one's parents to another.