Europe and the Western Hemisphere

Chapter 28

Recovery and Renewal in Europe

Western Europe

- the Marshall Plan helped countries of Western Europe `to recover quite quickly and effectively from WWII related damage (see page 825 for chronology of Western Europe after WWII)

  • industrial production exceeded previous records and unemployment was nonexistent in Europe


- Charles de Gaulle ruled France for nearly 25 years

  • Charles considered the Fourth Republic’s foundation very weak
  • in 1958 he left politics but soon returned when given power to run France and revise the constitution

- Charles gave more power to the president when he changed the constitution

  • ability to choose the Prime Minister, dissolve parliament, and supervise national defense and foreign policy

- he engaged into the nuclear arms race and tested France’s first bomb in 1960

- France didn’t achieve Charles goals

  • -they were too big of goals for France to accomplish

- France did increase GDP by 5.5% and increased industry and exports

- the increase in cost of living caused dissatisfaction and protests/strikes

- Charles resigned in 1969 after he ended a labor strike

- France’s economic situation led to a political shift to the left

- Socialism became dominant in France

- Francois Mitterand became president

  • attempted to help workers: higher min wage, expanded benefits, five weeks paid vacation for salaried workers, and 39 hr work week

- Socialist policies failed to work

- decline in support for Socialist party

  • Mitterand gov. privatized portions of economy

- France’s eco. continued to fall

- conservative mayor Jacques Chirac was elected president

- unemployment caused resentment towards foreigners

  • immigration was stopped

- young Muslims started riots against poor living conditions and lack of foreign employment opportunities

From West Germany to One Germany

- three Western zones of Germany were unified as Federal Republic of Germany

- Konrad Adenauer became chancellor

- Adenauer’s chancellorship is considered the start of German economic reconstruction

  • wages doubled between 1950 and 1965
  • unemployment fell from 8% to 0.4%

- voters changed from Christian Democrats to Social Democrats

- the first Social Democratic chancellor was Willy Brandt

- in 1982 Christian Democratic Union of Helmut Kohl formed a new gov.

- new problems soon replaced all of the excitement for reunification

- Germany struggled to build a united nation

- Kohl was outvoted in 1998 and replaced by Gerhard Shroder

Decline of Great Britain

- Great Britain’s eco started to collapse after WWII closed

- Conservative politicians were quickly replaced with Labour Party officials

- Britain turned into a welfare state

  • nationalization of the Bank of England, coal and steel industries, transportation, and public utilities
  • social security and medical insurance was established

- eco problems continued and Conservatives regained power

- the Labour Party and the Conservatives went back and forth between power

  • neither party could heal the eco problems

- Margaret Thatcher(1st Prime Minister) returned the Conservatives to power

  • controlled British politics in 1980s
  • Thatcher’s popularity fell and she soon resigned

- Tony Blair followed Thatcher

  • joined the international coalition against terrorism
  • Blair’s support of the US’s war in Iraq caused his popularity to fall

- Gordon Brown took Blair’s place in 2007

- David Cameron ended 13 yrs of Labour Party control of politics

Eastern Europe after Communism

- new orders arose after the Soviet Union lost its grip and these countries were freed

  • most countries had little experience in with democratic systems
  • ethnic divisions reemerged from suppression by Communist rule

- both Poland and Czech Republic successfully adopted free markets and democracy

- in Czechoslovakia, Czechs and Slovaks disagreed over new state makeup but divided the country without problem

- both Eastern and Western Europe saw downfalls to European unity

  • Eastern Europeans didn’t want to be dominated economically
  • Western Europeans didn’t want massive influx of low wage workers

Disintegration of Yugoslavia

- Yugoslavia never had a solid foundation

  • held together only by strong leaders-ie. Marshal Tito

- soon was caught up in reform movements in Eastern Europe

- negotiations for division among the 6 countries failed

  • Slovenia and Croatia declared independence

-Serbian leader Slobodan Milosevic wanted all borders to accommodate all Serbs

-Serbian forces attacked both Croatia and Slovenia

-Serbia gained 1/3 Croatia’s territory and none of Slovenia’s

- in 1992, Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia, Bosnia, and Herzegovina were recognized as independent nations

  • Serbia didn’t give up

- Serbia attacked Bosnia and gained 70% of their land

- Serbia began the policy of ethnic cleansing and killed/removed Bosnians from the area

  • almost 8,000 men were killed at Srebrenica

- European countries didn’t do anything until fighting started to spread

  • US and some European nations intervened and set up a ceasefire agreement

- new war erupted over Kosovo(ethnically Albanians)

- Albanians formed the KLA(Kosovo Liberation Army) and stood up to Serbian rule

  • when Serbs began to kill Albanians, the US and NATO began to bomb Serbia

- Yugoslav president Milosevic was kicked out and put on trial for crimes against humanity

  • he died in prison in 2006

- troops remained in Bosnia to keep peace

  • NATO forces stayed in Kosovo while UN officials set up democracy

- Yugoslavia was officially transformed into Serbia and Montenegro in 2004

- all 6 nations voted for independence by 2006

  • Kosovo declared independence from Serbia in 2008

New Russia

- after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 Russia started new with president Boris Yeltsin

- new constitution created a 2 chambered parliament

- Yeltsin believed in reforms that would rebuild the political system and eco

- war with Chechnya drained Russia’s budget

- Yeltsin was reelected in 1996 despite curious health conditions

The Putin Era

- Yeltsin resigned in 1999 and was replaced by Vladimir Putin(ex-KGB member)

- Putin promised to increase gov involvement in managing state affairs

- parliament approved his plans to centralize power in Moscow

  • he also promised to bring Chechnya back to Russia and be more aggressive in international affairs

- fighting in Chechnya nearly destroyed its capital of Grozny

- in 2001 Putin made changes that would stimulate economic growth

  • unrestricted sale and purchase of land
  • tax cuts

- Russia saw a budget surplus and a growing eco

- Putin gathered control on society by silencing critics

  • most Russians understood and sympathized for the attempt to restore Russian pride and discipline

- in 2008 Putin became Prime MInister and Dmitry Medvedev became president

Unification of Europe

- Cold War divisions led to use of military for security

  • formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO)

- France, West Germany, and Italy(plus Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg=Benelux) signed the Treaty of Rome to create the European Economic Community(EEC)

- the EEC eliminated barriers and a free trade area for all 6 nations

- all member nations economically benefited

- Great Britain, Ireland, and Denmark joined the European Community(EC) soon followed by Austria, Finland, and Sweden (see page 830 for a map of the European Union)

The European Union

- the EC was economic but not political

- in 1994 the EC became the European Union(EU)

  • true economic and monetary union
  • introduced the Euro=standard European currency
  • also created a common agricultural policy(to help farmers sell goods in the global market)

- when Greece’s economy fell apart it threatened other European economy

- Germany followed by other countries made the Rescue Plan in an attempt to save the economy

  • ironically Portugal and Ireland also asked for assistance

- in 2009, the EU proposed the Lisbon Treaty

  • created voting rights based on a country’s population
  • gave European Parliament more power

- problems still exist despite the effort

  • Europeans are often divided
  • representatives aren’t always 100% accountable to the people
  • economic bailouts also create tensions for bankrupt nations and richer nations

Toward a United Europe

- the EU wanted to include Eastern and Southeastern Europe

  • poorer Eastern nations could weaken the EU

- the EU established requirements

  • to commit to capitalism and democracy
  • respect of human rights/minorities

- joining the EU should help stability and unity in Europe

- Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia all joined

  • Bulgaria and Romania joined shortly after

Emergence of the Superpower: The United States

- after WWII the US became 1 of 2 world superpowers

  • the struggle between the US and Soviet Union grew
  • once the Soviet Union collapsed, the US became the mightiest military power in the world

American Politics and Society Through the Vietnam Era

- FDR’s New Deal started a basic transformation of American society

  • increased gov. rule

- Democratic presidents that followed helped the New Deal gain ground in politics

  • Truman, JFK, Johnson, and even Eisenhower
  • Eisenhower-”Should any political party attempt to abolish Social Security and eliminate labor laws and farm programs, you would not hear of that party again in our political history.”

- American confidence was promoted by the post-WWII economic boom

- JFK became the youngest president elected at 43 yrs old

  • focused on foreign affairs mostly

- Lyndon B Johnson succeeded JFK after Kennedy’s assassination

  • he even won a second term in 1964

- Johnson grew the welfare state

  • health care for elderly and even fought a “War on Poverty”
  • fought for equal rights for black Americans

- Martin Luther King Jr led the March on Washington in August 1963

  • wanted Jobs and Freedom for blacks

- Congress even passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 after Johnson got involved

  • the Voting Rights Act was passed the following year

- blacks did have voting rights by this point, but segregation against them had caused very high unemployment

- calls for action against the oppressors(such as Malcolm X) often attracted more support than the nonviolent movements(such as Martin Luther King)

- race riots broke out in 1965

- when King was assassinated riots broke out all across the US

- anti-war protests arose as Johnson engaged in the Vietnam War

Great Society

Lyndon B. Johnson's speech regarding poverty in America.

The Shift Rightward After 1973

- President Nixon’s election in 1968 caused a total shift in politics

- Nixon ended the Vietnam War by pulling all troops out of Vietnam gradually

- Nixon was always on the lookout for any adversaries

- after his paranoia got the best of him, Nixon planted devices to listen in on the Democratic National Headquarters

  • which started the Watergate Scandal

- despite denying involvement Nixon had trapped himself and had no way to get out and resigned

  • he resigned instead of being impeached which was almost guaranteed conviction

- Gerald Ford quickly replaced Nixon and focused on domestic politics but served very shortly before being replaced by Jimmy Carter

- Carter had 2 problems to face

  • high inflation on top of low wages
  • 2)53 Americans were taken hostage by Iran

- Carter failed at getting the hostages released and was thought of as weak

- Carter was soon replaced by Ronald Reagan

- Reagan cut back on welfare by decreasing food stamps, school lunch programs, and job programs

  • but he also increased gov spending from $631 billion to over $1 trillion

- Reagan even suggested tax cuts would stimulate the eco

  • in the short run it worked but gov still was in and continued to gather debt

- by 1988 total debt tripled to $2.6 trillion

- George H W Bush succeeded Reagan

  • Bush’s inability to deal with the debt led to election of Bill Clinton

- Clinton did believe in numerous Republican policies

  • he even went on to adopt conservative policies

- an economic revival did follow Clinton through his time in office

- annual gov debt did steadily fall and promoted the national eco

- he was put on trial for his affair with a member of his cabinet

  • the Senate acquitted Clinton but he did lose support during the following election

- George W Bush won the election in 2000

  • lost popular vote to Al Gore but won the electoral because of Florida’s support

- Bush was highly focused on the War on Terrorism through his 1st term

  • established Department of Homeland Security after 9/11

- Bush also favored tax cuts

  • brought the same problems as Reagan had

- environmentalists and Bush’s admin went head-to-head because of efforts to weaken laws

- other problems such as financial corruption, the Iraq War, and poor effort of dealing with Hurricane Katrina led to decline in Bush’s popularity

- these problems led to Bush’s approval rating for a president which was the lowest rating for any modern president

- Barack Obama became president in 2008

  • slogan was “change that we can believe in”
  • also aided by economic collapse in fall of 2008(worst eco recession since Great Depression)
  • also promoted change in health care, climate, and educational decline

The Development of Canada

- Canada’s development has gone hand-in-hand with the US’s

- prospered economically for 25 yrs after WWII

  • strong export
  • electronic, aircraft, nuclear, and chemical engineering industries were built up

- the US’s financial aid was a major cause to Canadian growth

  • American ownership of Canadian businesses
  • some appreciated eco growth and some feared American domination

- close ties with US have existed since WWII

- joined NATO in 1949 and sent troops to Korea

  • supported UN to avoid subordination to US

- Liberal Party dominated Canada

  • created welfare state with national social security system and health insurance program

- Pierre Trudeau was dedicated to Canada’s federal union

  • Trudeau pushed industrialization but got high inflation and limited voters

- the Conservative Party came to power during an economic recession

  • Brian Mulroney led the gov

- Mulroney’s gov wanted privatization of state-run companies

- a free-trade agreement with the US brought hatred to Mulroney

- Liberal leader Jean Chretien won election

  • eco policies and growth led to budget surplus

- another Liberal victory in 1997

  • gov corruption led to Conservative victory in 2006 and Stephen Harper became Prime Minister

- Harper’s gov collapsed in 2011 but he was reelected

- Quebecois Party wanted Quebec to secede

- they used bombings and kidnapped 2 gov officials to try for negotiations to gain independence

  • Quebec narrowly voted in favor of staying

Latin America Since 1945

- coups often occurred because of the political instability of the Great Depression

- the GD also caused transformation from traditional to a modern economy

- (see page 839 for chronology of Latin America since 1945)

- Latin America had exported mostly raw materials and imported manufactured goods

  • minerals and food

- the GD caused exports to be cut in half

  • many Latin American countries industrialized

- Latin America was still dependent on the US

  • borrowed money from US
  • debt increased from $27 billion to $315 billion
  • militarily
  • US gained control of a lot of Latin America’s export industries

- movement towards democracy happened at the same time

  • most military leaders didn’t deal with the debt

- the US also tried to develop real relations with Latin America

  • formed OAS(Organization of American States)
  • especially out of fear that COmmunism might spread to Central America

Threat of Marxist Revolutions

- Marxism only began to succeed when Fidel Castro gained control of Cuba

  • set the example for other countries

Cuban Revolution

- Castro started to oppose Fulgencio Batista and US investors

- Castro moved to guerilla warfare to assault Batista’s gov

- Batista fled and Castro seized Havana in 1959

- the Soviet Union then moved in closer and bought Cuban sugar and gave $100 million

- President Eisenhower organized CIA training of Cubans

- when Soviet weapons arrived in Cuba the US stopped buying Cuban sugar

  • and Cuba took over US banks

- in 1960 Castro declared he was a Marxist

- the US broke ties with Cuba and sent in 1400 Cuban’s to overthrow the gov

  • the Soviets then installed nuclear missiles

- as a result the US promised not to invade Cuba

  • Castro then sent in Guevara to start a war with Bolivia but Guevara was caught and killed

- Castro’s revolution still continued

- it caused social reforms(health care and education and rights for women)

- straying from industrialization, Castro promoted agriculture

- Cuba lost support with the Soviet Union

- Castro stayed in power until 2008 and was replaced by his brother Raul

Chile’s Marxist Adventure

- US influence in Latin America was challenged by Salvador Allende(another Marxist)

  • elected president of Chile in 1970

- Chile had eco problems

  • large landowners controlled wealth
  • inflation and debt
  • decline in mining(copper exports=80% export income)

- Allende was leader of Socialists, Communists, and Catholics

- he increased wages of industrial workers

- Nixon cut all aid to Chile

  • Chilean gov hardly resisted when workers seized estates
  • upper and middle classes organized strikes
  • Allende brought military leaders into his cabinet

- Allende and supporters were killed in a coup by Chilean army under General Augusto Pinochet

  • the army set up a dictatorship and rebuilt industries in Chile
  • abuse of humans led to hatred against gov

- Patricio Aylwin became pres and promoted free market eco

  • unemployment stayed high
  • hoped to boost eco growth by trading with the US

- Michelle Bachelet became Chile’s first woman pres

- Sebastian Pinera(Harvard grad and billionaire) was elected and promised Socialist social eco policies and cracked down on crime


- the US intervened in Nicaraguan domestic affairs and marines even occupied the area for long periods of time

- Anastasio Somoza seized control of gov and controlled for 43 yrs

  • he used and took advantage of US support

- opposition to Somoza finally came with the Sandinista National Liberation Front

  • gained control through military victories
  • rebuilt the country with ties to the Soviet Union

- Pres Reagan and Bush sent Contra rebels to war with Sandinista

  • this war weakened Nicaragua and the Sandinista gov

- in 1990 Violeta Barrios de Chamorro won the next election

- the Sandinistas won again in 2006 and became the dominant party

  • Daniel Ortega became the pres

The Mexican Way

- Mexico’s ruling party focussed on industrial growth

  • prosperity followed with low inflation and higher wages

- police forces killed hundreds of students in Tlaltelolco Square(Mexico City) showed the ruthlessness of the Institutional Revolutionary Party(PRI)

- 2 presidents brought reform

  • registration rules for political parties eased and greater freedom of debate
  • but eco problems continued

- oil became dominant product of Mexican eco

  • oil prices dropped in the 1980s and Mexico stopped paying off debts
  • unemployment rose

- both caused dissatisfaction with gov

- Carlos Salinas won barely with %50.3 majority but was expected to win in a landslide

- Vicente Fox beat the PRI and failed to deal with political corruption

- Fox was replaced by Felipe Calderon

  • he attempted to make reforms on immigration and went to war against the drug cartels

Society and Culture in the Western World

The Emergence of a New Society

- After WWII, a technocratic/consumer society

- A society consumers

  • working class earned higher wages > started using middle class luxuries (ex. TVs, vacuums, cars, ect.)
  • higher wages + shorter work hours = mass leisure activities

A revolt in Sexual Mores

- permissive society: loose moral code spread outward from larger cities

- birth control pill > more freedom in sexual behavior

-divorce rates and extramarital sex rates skyrocket

Youth Protest and Student Revolt

- wide spread use of Marijuana

- opposition to Vietnam War > rebellion/protest movement

- higher education made open to lower class > lower quality of education > student revolts

Women in the Postwar Western World

- females left the work force after WWII > baby boom

- introduction of birth control (1960s) > family size declines > women rejoined workforce

The Feminist Movement: The Quest for Liberation

- women's liberation movement- the struggle for equal rights for women, which has deep roots in history but achieved new prominence under this name in the 1960s

- women fought for equal pay and social status

- Influential women: Simone de Beauvoir and Betty Friedan

Transformation in Women's Lives

- birth rates slow > populations decrease

- number of women in work field rises

- contraception and abortion debate begins

- women activists become politically involved > join the antinuclear movement and ecological movement

- Western Women reached out to help other women

Civil Rights and the 1950s: Crash Course US History #39

The Growth of Terrorism

- 1970s and 1980s: assassination, indiscriminate killing of civilians, taking of hostages, and the hijacking of planes

- hostility grew in the 80s > airplane bombings start

Terrorist Attack on the U.S.

- 9/11: al-Qaeda terrorist group's attack took 3,000 American lives

- President George W. Bush started a war to destroy al-Qaeda

- U.S took control of Afghan by Nov. 2001 and started a democracy there (since developed Taliban activity)

The West and Islam

- American involvement in Israeli-Palestinian conflict, liberation of Kuwait, and the invasion Iraq has caused many negative attitudes toward the U.S. from Islamic groups

- Islamic groups continue to threaten the safety of Western peoples including U.S. citizens (see page 847).

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Terrorism, War, and Bush 43: Crash Course US History #46

Guest Workers and Immigrants

-Labor shortage in 1950s and 1960s forced Western European countries to rely on foreign workers

-15 million guest workers in the 1980s

-Guest workers caused tension with native people in soome cities

-End of the post-WWII boom led to mass unemployment in the 1970s

-Many countries startd restricting immigration

-Some new policies are aimed at religious practices

-Large increase in Muslim immigrants: 15 million in France, Belgium, Britain, Germany, and the Neatherlands at the turn of the century

-Some countries worry that Muslim immigration will erode national values

-France put a law into effect that prohibits school girls from wearing a hijab to school (Pg 847)

The Environment and the Green Movements

-Environmentalism became big in Europe in the 1970s

-Air pollution caused respiratory illnesses and corrosion of buildings and monuments

-Polluted rivers, lakes, and seas posed health risks

-People became more aware of environmental problems after revolutions of 1989 and Chernobyl nuclear disaster in 1986

-1987: “The Year of the Environment”

-Growing ecological awareeness gave way to Green movements and Green parties in the 1970s

-More govs started sponsoring clean-up projects

-More cities are limiting new consttruction and increasing the quantity and quality of green spaces within their limits

Western Culture Since 1945

-The Western world since WWII has been notable for its diversity and innovation, intellectually and culturally

Postwar Literature:

-Existentialism: emphasized the meaninglessness of life

-Postmodernism: rejects modern Western belief in an objective truth; focuses on the relative nature of reality and knowledge

-Poststructuralism: there is no fixed, universal truth because culture is created and can therefore be analyzed in various ways

Trends in Art

-The US dominated the art world following WWII

-Abstract Expressionism: energetic and spontaneous, “action painting”

-Pop Art emerged in the early 1960s; Andy Warhol

The World of Science and Technology

-During World War II, university scientists were recruited to work for their governments and develop new weapons and practical instruments of war

-Radar, self-propelled rockets, jet airplanes, computers, atomic bomb

-Science became very complex

-Space race of the 1960s: Soviets sent Sputnik, the first space satellite, into orbit in 1957

-First man on the moon in 1969 (Neil Armstrong)

-NASA sent two Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, to Mars in 2004

-Personal computer became popular in the 1990s

Varieties of Religious Life

-Catholic Church attempted religious renewal; Popes John XXIII and John Paul II

-Fundamentalism: emphasizes rigid adherence to basic religious principles (movement within Protestantism that arose early in the 20th century)

-In Islam, fundamentalism refers to the return to traditional Islamic values

-Islam is growing in Europe and the US despite wariness about Islamic radicalism

The Explosion of Popular Culture

-Pop culture has played an important role in helping Western people define themselves

-Movies, music and sports have radically changed since WWII

The Dangers of Constant Carnival

Spiro Agnew's speech on the rebellion taking place in the 60s.

Essay Prompt

Compare and contrast attitudes toward family life before and after the introduction of the birth control pill.