States of Matter

Parker Ponder


Solids-a substance or object that is solid rather than liquid or fluid.



Shape memory metals can remember their shape. When brought to a certain temperature, these metals can be set to a shape that they never forget.

  • Stretch

Some solids, such as the metal copper, can be pulled and stretched easily into extremely thin wires.


Some solids, such as steel or concrete, are difficult to break, even if they are made to carry a heavy weight.


Two examples of solids would be weights and diamonds.



Liquid- having a consistency like that of water or oil, i.e., flowing freely but of constant volume.


  • assumes the shape of the part of the container which it occupies
  • not easily compressible
  • flows easily


Two examples of liquids would be coke and water.



Gases-an airlike fluid substance which expands freely to fill any space available, irrespective of its quantity.



  • Anyone who has walked into a kitchen where bread was baking has experienced the fact that gases expand to fill their containers, as the air in the kitchen becomes filled with wonderful odors.
  • Pressure versus force-The volume of a gas is one of its characteristic properties. Another characteristic property is the pressure the gas exerts on its surroundings.
  • Compressibility- An internal combustion engine provides a good example of the ease with which gases can be compressed.


Two examples of gases would be nitrogen and hydrogen.



Plasma-the colorless fluid part of blood, lymph, or milk, in which corpuscles or fat globules are suspended.

  • Details
  • Plasma has no definite shape
  • particles have completely broken apart
  • conducts electric current


Two examples would be fire and lightning.

Bose-Einstein Condensate

Definition- A state of matter that forms below a critical temperature in which all bosons in the matter fall into the same quantum state. Also called superatom. Origin of Bose-Einstein condensate. After Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein.


  • Particles can only have a set amount of energy. They either have the energy to bounce around in gases or just the energy to flow like a liquid or be fixed like a solid.
  • If you take enough of the particle's energy away you get to the tiniest or the smallest amount of energy possible. This is a Bose–Einstein condensate.
  • This makes all of the particles exactly the same and instead of bouncing around randomly in all different directions, they all bounce up and down in exactly the same way, forming something called a 'giant matter wave.

Examples excited atoms and bomb.