Muscular System

By: Liz Slaby

Purpose:

The muscular system is responsible for the movement of the human body. Muscles are the only tissue in the body with the ability to contract, causing the movement of related parts of the body. Another function of the muscles is transporting substances such as blood or food throughout the body. Body posture and core temperature are vital to our healthy living, and thanks to the muscular system both of those can be regulated by the use of muscles.

Organs

There are over 700 muscles that are named, all vital to the human body. The main function of the individual muscles is to produce movement and maintain body posture. They also generate heat required to maintain the constant core body temperature.

The Three Types of Muscle

Specific Organs

Sternocleidomastoid

  • Flexes and laterally rotates cervical spine
  • Extends neck when the neck is already opened partially

Deltoid

  • Rounded triangular muscle on top of shoulder
  • Contraction of the fibers rotates the arm
  • Able to reach out to the side, and laterally rotate

Pectoralis major

  • Begins at breastbone and attaches to clavicle
  • Main function is to move the arm across the body
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Satorius

  • Longest muscle in the human body
  • Anterior region of the thigh
  • Important flexor of the thigh, reaches both hip and knee joints
  • Common action: crossing legs as to put ankle on knee

Article Summary

A team at USC has developed a new technique on the microscopic level that can help determine new data about muscular dystrophy. They call the technique "CALM" and it helps show the protein functions in the muscles at a nano-metric level. Scientists can now explore the homeostatic controls at the molecular level, determining diseases and their origins. CALM is able to be ten times more precise than any technology before. They discovered a lack of the dystrophin protein which creates the dysfunctional symptoms of muscular dystrophy basically meaning a lack of calcium, for simpler terms. Now that CALM has been developed the team needs to put it to use, all while creating new advantages in the science and medical field to eventually find a cure. The team at USC's main goal is to find a cure for Muscular Dystrophy as fast as possible.

Homeostatic Imbalances

Muscular Dystrophy

Muscular Dystrophy is a genetic disease, most commonly found in young children, mainly boys. It damages muscles, causing the strength and function to deteriorate over time. There are different types of Muscular Dystrophy, but the one initiating in children is more common. An initiating symptom is the dropping of the facial muscles. The result of MD usually puts the individual in a wheelchair. There is no cure for muscular dystrophy yet, but there has been research creating ways of slowing down the terrible disease.
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Myotonia

Myotonia is known as when the muscles relax slowly after a contraction or occurrence. Symptoms include slow release time on specific objects, or trouble standing up from a sitting position. Myotonia can be triggered over time, or even in the cold. There are various medications to help heal myotonia, along with the ability to go to physical therapy to help the disorder.
Myotonic "Fainting" Goats

Tendonitis

Tendinitis in general is the painful disorder of a tendon. There are specific cases which are usually named by the area of the body where the tendon is located, for example Achilles tendinitis affects the Achilles tendon. The overuse of the tendon leads to the weakening to that muscle. Symptoms of tendinitis include swelling, stiffening, or weakness of the muscle in the effected area. The main treatment for tendinitis is to rest, ice, and protect that area from any further damage. You just have to wait it out to see when it heals, if necessary a splint or brace will be given to you.
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Bibliography

Websites:

"List of Muscular System Diseases."LIVESTRONG.COM. LIVESTRONG.COM, 6 Mar. 2011. Web. 22 Sept. 2014. <http://www.livestrong.com/article/81486-list-muscular-system-diseases/>.

"Muscular System." InnerBody. Tim Taylor, n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2014. <http://www.innerbody.com/image/musfo

"Muscular dystrophy." Definition. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2014. <http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/muscular-dystrophy/basics/definition/con-20021240>.

"Patellar tendon." Medterms. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2014. <http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=34200>.

"Sternocleidomastoid."Sternocleidomastoid. Loyola University Medical Education Network, n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2014. <http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/meded/gro

Zoubina , Elena. "19.5: Homeostatic Imbalances of the Muscular System."Homeostatic Imbalances of the Muscular System. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2014. <http://www.ck12.org/user:ZXpvdWJpbmFAaG90bWFpbC5jb20./book/General-Principles-of-Biology-Fall-2012/section/19.5/>.

University of South Carolina. "New microscopy technique yields fresh data on muscular dystrophy." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2014. <http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/09/1


Pictures:

http://www.pathguy.com/histo/056.jpg

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http://www.kumc.edu/instruction/medicine/anatomy/histoweb/muscular/small/Musc14s.JPG

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