Sir Isaac Newton

By: Lauren Smith

Date and Place of Birth:

He was born on January 4, 1643 in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, United Kingdom.

Family:

Newton's mother, Hannah, married again after the death of his father at an early age of three years old. She left Isaac to go live with her new husband. Leaving him with his grandmother. He was traumatized by these events with no close relations to his new caretaker. He was by himself very often but soon had a half brother and two half sisters. After the death of Barnabas Smith, Hannah's new husband, when Isaac was ten years old Hannah moved back to the house in Woolsthorpe. Sir Isaac inherited 200-300 theological books from Smith's home library. He was grateful to have his mom home again but now had to share time with her with his half siblings. In less than two years he was shipped off to Grantham Grammar School.
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Education/ Training:

Sir Isaac Newton attended the Grantham Grammar School also known as the King's School at a young age of twelve to finish his basic education. He also attended the University of Cambridge by the persuasion of his uncle. When he got there the scientific revolution of the 17th century was well on its way. He was intrigued by the more advanced science. There he had kept a journal labeled "Certain Philosophical Questions" where it was realized he had discovered a new concept of nature. He graduated with the title of scholar and four years of financial aid due to his extensive efforts. The University closed new to the plague though. He went to Trinity College in the time it took for Cambridge to reopen.
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The School in the 1850's
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Master's outside of the Head Master's house
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Apple tree and Old School

Experience/ Employment History:

While first attending Cambridge University Isaac cleaned the wealthier students' rooms and waited tables to earn his stay. He conceived the method of infinitesimal calculus, set foundations for his theory of light and color, and gained significant insight into the laws of planetary motion- insights that eventually led to the publication of his Principia in 1687. He came across Nicholas Mercator's published book on methods for dealing with infinite series. Newton hastily wrote a treatise, De Analysi, establishing his own wider-raning results. He shared this with friend Isaac Barrow, but didn't put his name down as an author. He was also a professor at Cambridge University.
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Scientific Discoveries:

Part of Newton's study of optics was aided with the use of a reflecting telescope that he designed and created in 1668- his first big public scientific achievement. This helped prove his theory of light and color. The three laws of motion were named after Newton due to his contribution. These laws stated: 1) A stationary body will stay stationary unless an external force is applied to it; 2) Force is equal to mass times acceleration; 3) For every action, there is and equal and opposite reaction. These three laws helped explain not only elliptical planetary orbits but nearly every motion in the world. Isaac Newton also studied gravity were it was said he discovered by an apple falling from a tree.
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Awards/ Honors:

Newton received many awards and honors. One of these such was knighthood. While teaching at Cambridge University he earned the title of the top mathematics professor. He also reserved admission to the Royal Society. After many years Isaac gained a seat in the Parliment. After his death he was buried in the Westminster Abbey which is a huge honor.
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Hobbies or Personal Interests:

A collection of his notes thought to have been lost 70 years ago reveal his many tries to turn lead into gold. His main hobbies were alchemy, astronomy, mathematics, and religion. He did occasionally take walks, but it was very rare.
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Disabilities/ Illnesses:

Sir Isaac Newton was epileptic. Also less severe he had a noticeable stutter.
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Date, Place, and Cause of Birth:

Newton died on March 31, 1727 in Kensington, London, United Kingdom. He died of natural causes.

I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the seashore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me. -Isaac Newton

Newton's Timeline:


Isaac Newton's Time Line



1642

Father died in October, Newton born at Woolsthorpe Manor, Grantham, on Christmas Day, December 25th


1649

May have attended same dame school in Colsterworth and Skillington as the Storer children


1655

Attended Free Grammar School, Grantham (now known as The King's School, Grantham). Carved his name in the School window ledge. Lodged with the Clarke family including the Storer children, in Grantham

Euclidis Elementa published by Stokes, Newton's tutor at the Free Grammar School


1661

Went to Trinity College, Cambridge


1665

Graduated as Bachelor of Arts. August: Returned to Woolsthorpe because of the Plague

Newton's experiments on gravitation; he also evolved Binomial Theorum and discovered Differential Calculus


1666

Saw apple falling from tree at Woolsthorpe Manor

Newton discovered Integral Calculus, and developed Theory of Colours


1667

Returned to Cambridge. Awarded fellowship of Trinity College


1668

Newton constructed reflecting telescope


1669

Appointed Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge


1674

Remained at university and researching most years until 1696


1675

Newton experiments on Static Electricity


1679

Newton's mother, Hannah, died of a fever; Newton present at her death


1682

Comet identified by Newton's friend, Arthur Storer, however comet later to be named after Edmund Halley who realised that it returned at regular intervals. Known as Halley's Comet


1687

The Principia published in 3 sections in Latin


1689

Elected M.P. for Cambridge.



1693

Had mental breakdown


1696

Moved to London; became Warden of the Royal Mint


1699

Elected to the Council of the Royal Society. Completed his revision of the country's coinage


1700

Became Master of the Royal Mint, to solve government currency problem


1701

Elected M.P. for Cambridge a 2nd time. Resigned Chair of Mathematics


1703

Elected President of the Royal Society; was to be re-elected President for the remainder of his life


1704

Opticks published


1705

Knighted by Queen Anne at Cambridge; 'Sir Isaac Newton'. Failed to be re-elected to Parliament


1706

Revised edition of Opticks published


1713

Second edition of Principia published


1717

2nd edition of Opticks published


1721

3rd edition of Opticks published


1725

Moved to Kensington; health deteriorating


1726

3rd edition of Principia published


1727

Newton died 20th March. Buried in Westminster Abbey


1729

Principia published in English for the first time