persain manuscript

which is also called cuneiform

We know about ancient persia

cyrus spend no time to establish persia and persian control over near east egypt and part of india. Darius 1 later develope their empire in 522-486 BCE . they believed in one god . it was foundred by the prophet zoroaster called zarathustra . he taught constant struggle between good and evil .

When it was formed ?

After Darius came to power around 522 BC, one of his many contributions to the Persian Empire (and Persian culture) was the invention of the Old Persian cuneiform. As was mentioned in Earliest History, beforethe settlement of the Persians in Persia proper, almost all the nations immediately to the west of this land (such as the Elamites, Sumerians, Aramians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Akkadians, etc.), each implemented a variation of the cuneiform writing system. Darius designed the Persian variation after some of these people’s, especially the Akkadians.

Alphabet in old persia

The number of the characters in the Old Persian syllabary is 36. These characters are divided as follows:

  • 3 vowels: a, i, u
  • 22 consonant signs with a as the inherent vowel: ka, xa, ga, ca, ja, ta, θa, ça, da, na, pa, fa, ba, ma, ya, ra, la, va, sa, ša, za, ha
  • 4 consonants with i: ji, di, mi, vi
  • 7 consonants with u: ku, gu, tu, du, nu, mu, ru

Old persian numerals

Big image

Here the Old Persian is presented; the colons reflect the placement of the word dividers in the original inscription

adam : dārayavauš : xšāyaθiya : vazarka : xšāyaθiya : xšāyaθiyānām : xšāyaθiya : pārsaiy : xšāyaθiya : dahyūnām : vištāspahyā : puça : aršāmahyā : napā : haxāmanišiya….

‘I (am) Darius, the great king, King of Kings, king of Persia, king of [many] lands, son of Hystaspes, grandson of Arsames, an Achaemenian….’

old persian vs new persian

Old PersianNew Persian

xšāyaθiya- ‘king’šāh شاه

vazarka- ‘great, big, large’bozorg بزرگ

pārsa- ‘Persia’ (nowadays, only Persia proper)pārs, fārs پارس، فارس

dahyu- ‘land, province, district’deh ده ‘village’

vištāspa- ‘Hystaspes’gošn-asb, goštāsp, goštāsb گشتاسب

puça- ‘son’pesar پسر ‘boy, son’

napā- ‘grandson’ (< napāt-; orig., ‘offspring’)nave نوه ‘grandchild’

aršāma- ‘Arsames’āršām آرشام

haxāmanišiya- ‘Achaemenian’haxāmaneši هخامنشی

New Persian

šāh شاه

bozorg بزرگ

pārs, fārs پارس، فارس

deh ده ‘village’

gošn-asb, goštāsp, goštāsb گشتاسب

pesar پسر ‘boy, son

nave نوه ‘grandchild’

āršām آرشام

haxāmaneši هخامنشی