Computer History

The First Generation

the first generation

The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions.

First generation computers relied on machine langue, the lowest-level programming language understood by computers, to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts.

The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices. The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client, the U.S. Census Bureau in 1951

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The second generation

Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. The transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 1950s. The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors. Though the transistor still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube. Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output.
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the third generation

The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers.

Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operation system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.

the fouth generation

The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand. The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer—from the central processing unit and memory to input/output controls—on a single chip.

the fifth generation

Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality. Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the face of computers in years to come. The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization.
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Alan Turing

Alan Turing was a logician, mathematician and computer scientist. He is generally known for his work in artificial intelligence and computer science.

Alan Turing was born in London in 1912 and and at school he was able to solve complex problems without having been taught them!

FACT FILE

BORN: June 23 1912, London, Maida Vale

DIED: 7 June 1954 of cyanide poisoning

FIRST COMPUTER MADE: february 15th 1946

CRAZY FACT: Once he cycled 100km

During the world war 2, Turing worked at Belchley park and was involed in breaking the German Enigma Machine codes.

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Tim Burners-lee

    Professor Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee, OM, KBE, FRS, FREng, FRSA, DFBCS, also known as TimBL, is an English computer scientist, best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web.


    Born: June 8, 1955 (age 60), Londen

    Spouse: Rosemary Leith (m. 2014)

    Organizations founded: world wide web consortium, world wide foundation.

    Parents: Mary Lee Woods, Conway Berners Lee

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a list of peripheral devices

A peripheral is a "device that is used to put information into or get information out of the computer.
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Or keyboard that connects to and works with the computer in some way.
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image scanners
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tape drives
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microphones
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loudspeakers
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webcams
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and digital cameras.
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inputs and outputs

inputs and outputs include

  • keyboard

  • mouse
  • touchscreen
  • pen tablet
  • joystick
  • MIDI keyboard
  • scanner
  • digital camera
  • video camera
  • microphone