Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
Cardiac arrests are more common than you think, and they can happen to anyone at any time.
- Nearly 383,000 out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrests occur annually, and 88 percent of cardiac arrests occur at home.
- Many victims appear healthy with no known heart disease or other risk factors.
- Sudden cardiac arrest is not the same as a heart attack.
- Sudden cardiac arrest occurs when electrical impulses in the heart become rapid or chaotic, which causes the heart to suddenly stop beating.
- A heart attack occurs when the blood supply to part of the heart muscle is blocked. A heart attack may cause cardiac arrest.
Objective: Demonstrate CPR procedures
SCENARIO 1: Given a CPARLENE Full Body with memory Manikin with electronic monitoring.
You come across a Co-worker who has suddenly collapses. You saw victim collapse and reach the victim first. What are your actions?
Steps in CPR Procedures
A. Check the scene for safety
1. Before giving CPR, make sure that the scene is safe for you and for the victim
2. Example – for a roadway accident, make sure that there is no traffic in the area that could injure you or the victim
3. Do not become a victim yourself
B. Position the body
1. The victim must be lying
a) On his or her back (if the victim is face down, roll him or her over onto his or her back)
b) On a firm, flat surface
2. Kneel at the victim’s side
3. Remove any restrictive clothing from the victim’s chest area
C. Check the victim for a response before giving CPR
1. Tap the victim and shout, "Are you okay?"
2. Shake the victim gently
3. If the victim does not respond, get help on the way as soon as possible
D. Get help by following the appropriate steps
1. Notify dispatch that you need emergency medical service (EMS) or Fire Service en route to the scene
2. Request an automated external defibrillator (AED) if your vehicle is not equipped with one
E. Check the victim’s breathing
1. Open the victim’s airway by tilting the head and lifting the chin
2. Check if the victim is breathing normally (take at least five seconds, but no more than 10 seconds, to do this)
3. Put your ear next to the victim’s mouth and nose
4. Look to see if the victim’s chest rises
5. Listen for breaths from the victim
6. Feel for the victim’s breaths on your cheek
F. Push on the victim’s chest
1. Put the heel of your hand on the center of the victim’s chest between the nipples
2. Put the heel of your other hand on top of the hand that is already on the victim’s chest
3. Push straight down on the victim’s chest to a depth of one and one-half to two inches with each push (also called a compression)
4. Push hard and fast
5. Repeat the compressions at a rate of 100 pushes per minute
6. After each compression, release the pressure on the victim’s chest and let it come back to its normal position
G. Open the victim’s airway
1. Tilt the victim’s head by pushing back on his or her forehead
2. Lift the victim’s chin by putting your fingers on the bony part of the chin
3. Do not press the soft part of the victim’s neck or under the victim’s chin
4. Lift the victim’s chin to move the jaw forward
H. Give the victim breaths
1. Your breaths give the victim air when he or she cannot breathe on his or her own
2. Follow these steps to give the victim breaths:
a) Hold the victim’s airway open by tilting the head and lifting the chin
b) Pinch the victim’s nose closed
c) Take a normal breath and cover the victim’s mouth with your mouth (use personal protection equipment when available)
d) Give the victim two one-second breaths
e) Watch for the victim’s chest to rise as you give each breath
I. Do sets of 30 pushes and two one-second breaths
1. Try not to interrupt pushing on the chest for more than a few seconds
2. Do not take too long to give the victim breaths
J. Watch for special situations
1. Gasping is not breathing
a) In the first few minutes after the heart stops, a victim may only gasp
b) If the victim gasps when you open the airway to check his or her breathing, continue the steps of CPR
c) The victim is likely to need all the steps of CPR
2. If the first breath does not go in
a) Reopen the airway by tilting the victim’s head and lifting the chin before giving the second breath
b) Give two one-second breaths and then make 30 compressions
c) Repeat the sets of 30 pushes and two breaths until the victim starts to move, or trained help takes over
d) Recognize trained help (i.e., EMS responder, nurse, or doctor)
3. If the victim is breathing normally but not responding
a) Roll the victim on his or her side and wait for trained help to take over
b) Start the steps of CPR from the beginning if the victim stops breathing again
Effective bystander CPR provided immediately after sudden cardiac arrest can double or triple a victim’s chance of survival, but only 32 percent of cardiac arrest victims get CPR from a bystander.