Janessa Kuderer

Restriction Immigration

In the early 1900's old nativists began criticizing the immigration policy. Labor leaders argued that the large number of immigrants caused the wages to go down. Slowly Congress began to make it harder for immigrants to enter the U.S. In 1917 Congress passed the literacy test. However the nativists were still not satisfied so the National Origins Act of 1924 was created. Immigrants were granted entrance to the U.S based on their nationality. Those from Northern and Western Europe were given higher quotas, while those from Asia were banned completely. As a sign of pan-Americanism, or the idea of a political alliance with countries north and south of the U.S, Congress did not place a restriction on immigrants from the Western Hemisphere.

The Renewal of the KKK

By 1915 the Ku Klux Klan was almost dead. William Simmons, summoned the group to Stone Mountain were they burned a cross at sunset and pledged to reassert, restore, white supremacy. In 1920 the Klan was slowly growing in numbers reaching 5,000 members. That same year Elizabeth Tyler and Edward Clarke used their experience in fundraising to boost membership. They raised membership dues and also sold Klan memorabilia such as hoods and robes. Simmons created some of the KKK's terminology such as...

Local Chapters- Klaverns

Songs- Klodes

Leaders- Imperial Wizards

The KKK had reached 5 million members by the middle of the decade. They also had a women's auxiliary. This organization was nation wide but was particularly strong in the Midwest and South. The main targets consisted of not only African Americans, but Catholics, Jews, and non- Nordic. Membership in the Ku Klux Klan dropped at the end of the decade after corruption and scandals broke out among the national leaders, which discredited the Klan's message.

"Back to Africa"

A dramatic response by Marcus Garvey came about due to the KKK. Garvey believed the equality for African Americans could not be achieved in America. He formed the United Negro Improvement Association to urge cooperation from black businesses. Garvey gave speeches, created a uniform and a flag to symbolize "Black pride". The groups ultimate goal was to allow African Americans to their homeland. He founded the Black Star Steamship Company to transport African Americans back to Africa.

Works Cited

"47c. Intolerance." Intolerance. Independence Hall Association, 2008. Web. 10 May 2013. <>.

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