1st Semester Exam

Kristine Guevara

The Original State of Man

God created man in his own image and likeness. If man were not like God, we could not know him. He created Adam and Eve who are our first parents. Later, He created Jesus who was to be born from the blessed virgin Mary. Jesus was sent on this Earth to spread Christianity to the people. He also did human things and had the same characteristics as everyone else. Jesus went to school, had parents, became a carpenter, and many other things. Being made in the image of God helps us understand who he really is.

Original Sin and its Consequences

When Adam and Eve were created, they were both given free will. But when they used their free will to disobey God, they committed Original Sin. Adam and Eve were immediately punished and faced the consequences. They lost their state of original holiness and justice as well as their friendship with God. They also were expelled from the Garden of Eden. Adam and Eve experienced concupiscence, which means the inclination to sin. They even noticed their mutual nakedness and were shamed. God told Eve that she would suffer pain in childbearing as well as mistreatment from her husband. God created Adam and Eve to be equal, but because of Original Sin, she became under Adam's domination. God told Adam that the pleasures of work and his rule over creation had come to an end.

The Word Became Flesh

1. The Word became flesh for us in order to save us by reconciling with God. He sent his Son to save us from sin and become the Savior of the world. God loves us so much for this.

2. The Word became flesh so that thus we might know God's love. We can know more about how God is and his love for the world through his Son Jesus.

3. The Word became flesh to be our model of holiness. We as humans can be like Jesus to guide us to the right path to heaven. We can be in union with God in his kingdom and love him forever.

4. The Word became flesh to make us partakers of the divine nature. This is why the Word became man. The Son of God became man so that we human beings can be just like God.

The Paschal Mystery

The Passion, Death, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ have been called the Paschal Mystery. These events are the pinnacle of Christ's redemptive mission. This is the work that God the Father sent his Son to accomplish on earth. It is one of the essential beliefs of all Christians. In the Catechism of the Catholic Church, it says that the Paschal Mystery is celebrated and made present in the liturgy of the Church. Its saving effects are communicated through the sacraments, especially through the Eucharist.

The Theological Virtues

There are exactly three theological virtues: faith, hope, and charity. They help an individual grow in their relationship with God. A person can exhibit these virtues in their daily life.

1. Faith- belief in God, and the truth of His revelation as well as obedience for Him. The disciple of Christ must not only keep the faith and live on it, but profess it to those who do not believe.

2. Hope- expectation of and desire of receiving; refraining from despair capability of not giving up. The belief that God will be eternally present in every human's life and never giving up on His love.

3. Charity- We love God above all things for his own sake, and our neighbors as ourselves for the love of God. The giving of God's love to others who are not on the path to righteousness.


Prayer is an intimate conversation with God where people can grow in holiness. Through prayer and participation in the sacraments, a person is immersed in the heart and life of Christ. The prayer that is the model for all Christians is the Lord's Prayer which Christ taught his disciples. It helps resist temptation and is an effective petition for personal forgiveness as well as forgiving others. Praying daily leads a person to know God's will and enables the person to do their will more easily. Christ will always be there to listen and will help get through any difficult situation. There are three expressions of prayer: vocal, meditative, and contemplative prayer. Also, there are different forms of prayer: Blessing and Adoration, Petition, and Intercession. Prayer may seem simple, but it can be difficult when a person has lack of time, distraction, and spiritual dryness.

The Four Marks of the Church

The four marks of the church are one, holy, catholic, and apostolic. In the first centuries of Christianity, various heretical sects arose, each claiming to be the true Church founded by Christ. Because of this, the early Church made four distinct marks that identify the true Church established by Christ. We say these four marks in the Nicene Creed: "I believe in one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church." Oneness refers to the establishment of one Church by Jesus Christ and of the Church's teaching and ministry. Holiness of the Church comes from Christ and consists in a participation in his life achieved through his redemption. The Kingdom of God proclaimed by Jesus Christ is universal. All people are called to be members of his Church. Apostolic refers to her having been founded by the Apostles. They handed on the teachings of Christ, and the Church hands on this teaching even to the present day.

The Last Things

When we pass away from this earth, our soul will be judged by God which is called the Particular Judgment. We can be rewarded with eternal communion with God in Heaven or have purification in Purgatory or condemned to eternal separation from God in Hell.

1. Heaven- a person enjoys the immediate vision of God as he or she becomes like him in glory. It is a perfect state of happiness because you are completely purified from your sins.

2. Purgatory- a person is in the state of being purified. The souls are no farther from God than when on earth. They are certain to go to heaven but their punishment is the delay to see God.

3. Hell- a person who dies in mortal sin without asking God for forgiveness because of his or her free choice. The souls in Hell suffer the loss of eternal communion with God and also punishments according to the sins committed on earth.


The Parousia is the second coming of Christ at the end of time. It is Greek for apparition or presence. Christ will appear in triumph and majesty as judge and will establish his kingdom in all its fullness. When Christ will return, he will judge the people which is called the Last Judgment. Each person will be rewarded or punished for what he or she did in this life. God's majesty, wisdom, justice, and mercy will be evident. All people will know why God allowed the good to suffer and the bad to prosper. Everything we question will be understood.