By: Bethany Tuma

The Civil Rights Amendments

There are three Civil Rights Amendments. There are the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments.

The 13th- The 13th amendment states there shall be no slavery or servitude. Overall to stop slavery.

14th- Granted all citizentship within the United States, which including newly freed slaves denyed anyone within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

15th- Anyone that was born in The United States can not be denyed to vote.

Plans for Reconstruction

President Lincoln's plan- Lincoln's plan, Southerners who took an oath saying they would support the Union would be granted a pardon. The Reconstruction plan allowed southern states to form new governments and constitutions, as long as 10% of their voters supported the Union. 1860 presidential election would be the basis of the 10% of voters. The new state constitutions could not allow slavery. Most Northerners thought that Lincoln's plan wasn't harsh enough, because they thought that Southerners should get more punishment for trying to secede from the Union.

President Johnson's plan- Lincoln was assassinated a few days after Civil war eneded Vice President Andrew Johnson became the new president. Johnson came up with his own Reconstruction plan in1865. His plan offered pardons to every single southern white, not including the main Confederate leaders and rich Confederate supporters. Southern states that were defeated were to hold conventions and start new state governments. These new state governments had to get rid of slavery and agree to the country if they wanted to rejoin the Union.

Congress Plan- Congress took control of Reconstruction policies away from the President, drafting the 14th and 15th Amendments to the Constitution to protect the civil liberties and voting rights of African Americans. 1866 and 1875 Congress also enacted civil rights bills to guarantee all citizens equal rights in hotels, restaurants, trains, and other public accommodations and transportation facilities. Federal troops occupied many Southern states during Reconstruction, enabling the freedmen to vote and to elect Republican candidates both black and white to Congress. When these federal troops left, following the election of 1876, Congressional Reconstruction collapsed. The Supreme Court later ruled the civil rights acts unconstitutional. In the following years African Americans lost the right to vote, and racial segregation became the law throughout the South.

Black Codes

Black Codes affected African Americans by restricting their economic rights and prevented them from holding office, voting, serving on a jury, receiving a public education, or even being a fully freed person.

Racism & Discrimination

Voting Rights- African Americans in the South faces tremendous obstacles to voting, including poll taxes, literacy tests, and other restrictions to deny them the right to vote.

Ku Klux Klan- A response to extraordinary civil unrest during the Reconstruction period. This unrest threatened the lives and the political and economic rights of all newly freed slaves. Although closely tied to the era in which it was enacted, portions of the statute remain extraordinarily important to modern civil rights enforcement.

Protect New Rights- They stood up for what they believed in. They weren't going to be be put down again and loose their freedom because they believe they deserve freedom like all of the whites do.

Reconstruction to End

Compromise of 1877 is an article that brought the Reconstruction to an end. - After the presidential election of 1876, it became clear that the outcome of the race hinged largely on disputed returns from Florida, Louisiana and South Carolina. The only three states in the South with Reconstruction Republican governments still in power. A congressional commission debated over the outcome early in 1877, the Republican Party candidate Rutherford Hayes met in secret with moderate southern Democrats in order to negotiate acceptance of Hayes' election. The Democrats agreed not to block Hayes' victory on the condition that Republicans withdraw all federal troops from the South, thus consolidating Democratic control over the region. As a result of the so-called Compromise of 1877 (or Compromise of 1876), Florida, Louisiana and South Carolina became Democratic once again, effectively marking the end of the Reconstruction era.